Biographical Details on Boys' Clothing Styles (M-R)
Many famous and not so famous men remember the clothing and hair styles they wore as boys. Not so many years ago it was all up to mom how junior was dressed. In some cases, especially in the late 19th and early 20th Century, moms in Europe and America let their imaginations run wild, choosing elaborate Fautleroy and kilt outfits for their darling sons. The wife in affluent families rarely worked and thus she had a great deal of time, and in some cases the assistance of nannies and governesses, to see to the care and dressing of their children. The results were very little boys kept in dresses. Ever after they passed out of dresses, little and not little boys done up in dress-like tunics and kilts and lacey Fautleroy suits and kilts as well as more manly sailor suits. Biographical details on individuals from M-R are listed on this page. It is a page that is still being developed. If you have any historical information to add, do let me hear from you.
MacArthur, Douglas (United States, 18??-19??): An HBC contributor commented that General Douglas MacArthur was raised as a girl. HBC stresses that it is a misnomber to say that MacArthur and other children born in the 19th Century were raised as girls.
It is true that he wore dresses as a little boy. But this was the case for most boys, especially boys from families of comfortable circumstance. This does not mean they were raised as girls. McArthur grew up on western miltary posts and had quite a vigorous boyhhood. It is true, however, that his mother looked after him even as an older boy, even taking an apartment at West Point.
MacNeil, Robert (Canada, 1931- ): The PBS news anchor grew up in Nova Scotia. He was the eldest son of an eccentric families of anglophiles. He remembers his father as being mostly absent during the war years and was mostly raised by his mother who he paints in romantic terms in his book (ÃÃA MemoirÄÄ, Viking, 1989). A picture in the book shows him at 8 years, a wonderfully boyish little guy in a smart suit-- surely it was a short pants suit, but unfortunately you can't tell. His mother raised him on a diet of English children's books, Winnie the Pooh, Peter Pan, etc.
Mackenzie, Compton (England, 1883-1972): Sir Edward Montague Compton was a noted novelist and journalist who became a strong proponent of Scottish nationalism. He was born in West Hartlepool on January 17, 1883, the son of actor, Edward Compton. His birth was
entered in the parish register under his father's family name of Mackenzie but throughout his life he was always known to his friends as "Monty". In his memoir he recalls having to wear a Fauntleroy suit to a party. He was educated at St Paul's School and Magdalen College, Oxford. He studied for the English Bar, but because of his home background he was interested in the theatre and by a writing career.
Marceau?, Marcel (France,1920?- ): The French mime was active in the Underground during World War II. He helped smuggle Jewish children to Switzerland. In an interview he mentioned that he looked and dressed as a Boy Scout in shorts so the Germans thought he was a child.
Martin, Dean (U.S.,1917): The singer was born to Italian immigrants in 1917 as Dino Martini. They lived a comfortable life as their father who was a barber provided well for them. He and his older brother were nicely outfitted in sailor suits. Raised in Steubenville, Ohio, rather a tough steel town. His mother, perhaps with a little European flair, must have dressed her boys well as the other boys called him a sissy because of the way he was dressed. He was a good fighter though and quickly dispelled that notion.
Mason, Jackie - (U.S., ): Jewish comedian who grew up in New York was raised in an Orthodox Jewish family. His father was a rabbi and was determined that each of his sons also be one. Jackie didn't want to and [sorry my document was corrupted here]
Mastroianni, Marcello - (Italy, 1924-96): Marcello Mastroianni is one of the most famous Italian actors. We have littl information about his childhood clothes, but do know he wore smocks to school as was common in Italy during the 1930s. He is one of the few male Italian actors to avhieve the same international recognition of female statrs like Sophia Loren and Gina Lollobrigida. He appeared in over 80 films, including some of the best known Italian films. He became the prototype Latin lover in Italian movies.
Figure 1.--The class picture here is undated, but looks to hav been taken about 1935. A HBC reader indicates that this is an origional photograph from an Italian school that Marcello Mastroianni attended. It is unmistakable which boy he is (5th from left, top row).
Maxwell, Gavin - (Scotland, 1914-69): Gavin Maxwell was a remarkable person who led a event-filled life. He was born in Galloway (southwest Scotland) and grew up with his two brothers and sisters in an isolated country estate. His family was titled and he grew up in comfortable circumstance. He was habitually dressed in kilts. He has written a lovely discription of his charmed childhood and rather unhappy school experiences. Like many boys his age, he lost his father in World War I. It was in Scotland during his younger years that he developed an interest in wildlife. He is best known of course for his captivating book, The Ring of Bright Water.
McKay family (U.S.): The McKay dynasty was founded by John who was born in Dublin, Ireland. He had no money when he arrived in America (1840). He quit school to support the family. He eventually went to California and made his forture in Virginia City silver mines. His children were raiised in great luxury in Paris and London. His granddaughter Ellin married Irving Berlin, against her father's wishes because Berlin was Jewish. (Berlin's family had been driven out of Russia like so many other Jews by Tsar Alexander III's pogroms. A portrait shows Ellen with her brother and sister anout 1912.
Mellon, Paul (U.S., 19??-99): Paul was the son of one of the richest men in America and Treasury Secretary--Andrew Mellon. Mellon was also anoted philanthropistwho left a bequest that funded the Natioanl Gallery of Art on the Mall in Washington, DC. Paul was misweable as a child. He was raised by a distant father and a unaffectionate mother. One account describes Paul's father as "ice cube cold". Anthat was not just to acquaintances, but also to his son. As an adult, Paul wrote "I do not know, and I doubt if anyone will ever know, why Father was so seemingly devoid of feeling and so tightly contained in his lifeless, hard shell." His parents quarled and the marriage ended when he and his sister Ailsa were quite young. He was supervised by nannies and governesses. I understand that he was dressed quite formally, but have no details at this time. As an adult, he decided against banking as a career and playded a major role in the development of the National Gallary.
Mercantor, Gerard (Flanders, 1512- )): Gerard Mercantor is probably the most famous geographer in history. Hewas norn in Flanders during 1512 as Gerard Kremer. Hisparents were poor, but an uncle who was a priest saw to his education. By age 7 he could read and write as ell as speak Latin. Hi uncle arranged for a scolarship at age 15 to a religious boarding school here he learned penmanship and theology. He changed his name to Mercabtor, meaning merchant in Latin. He then studies grammar and philsophy at at Louvain University. He behan work as an apprentice engraver. and developed a relationship with the Gemma Frisius, a brilliant physician scientist who tutored him in mathmactics and astronomy. Mercantor went on to crate innovative map projections and grids. He virtully created the idea of an Atlas, personally originating the name. [Crane]
Meyer family: The best know member of the Meyer family is Katherine Graham. Her father made a fortune in chemicals and then bought a not very sucessful newspaper, the Washington Post. It was Katherine's trouble husband and Katherine herself tjhat built it into one of America's greatest newspapers. Katherine was very close to her brother Bill, wgo warned her about her husband before she mairred him. Bill as a boy wore white sailor suits and knicker as a boy.
Milch, Erhard (Germany, 1892-1972): Field Marshal Erhard Milch was second in command to Göering in the Luftwaffe. I'm not sure how he was dressed as a boy, but it is one of the biographies HBC wants to pursue. He was an ambitious man and much more Göering was architect of the the Luftwaffe. He also founded Lufthansa, the German airline. Even though his father was Jewish, he allowed him to serve in a prmonent position--perhaps under Göering's patronage. This was highly unusual. Under the NAZI race laws, people that were half Jewish were classified as Jews. Even if only one-quarter Jewish, as a Mischling he would have been diqualified for any prominent public position. Milch did not admit to this. His family history was investigated by the Gestapo. Göering resolved the issue having Milch's mother sign an affidavit that her husband was not Erhard's real father. The authorities were thus able to certify Milch as a "honorary" Aryan. He later fell out with Göering and worked with Speer. He was convicted of war crimes in the Nuremberg trials and sentenced to life imprisonment. He was released in June 1954 and wrote The Rise and Fall of the Luftwaffe.
Milne, Christopher Robin - (UK, 1920-96): Christopher was an only child and raised in London. He was the inspiration for his father's charming childrens' books. The first was When We Were Very Young (1924), inspired by 4-year old Christopher. The boy's affection for a bear named Winnie at the London Zoo became the basis for Winnie the Poo (1926), Now We Are Six (1927), and The House at Poo Corner (1928). Family photographs show how closely his father modeled the fictions Christopher Robin on his son,: the same wide, inquisitive brown eyes; the same cropped mop top--looking very girlish; the same gingham smock and sandals. He was kept in the smock even at eight. He was small and shy as a child. It was very hard to tell he was a boy, even his features looked girlish. The series was brought to film by Disney. The original illustrations in the books depicted Christopher faithfully in his gingham smock and girlish hair, but the Disney films had Christopher Robin in a definitely boyish hair cut and shorts--although they did in some versions have him wearing Mary Jane-type sandals and white socks. (Some recent versions actually have him in long pants!) His father devoted a career to making up stories for and about his son. The charges, however, that in reality he was apparently a very cold, distant father. Christopher was cared for by a nannie and brought to formal visits with his parents at meal times. There were apparently three rather formal visits daily. While not that unusual for affluent parents at the time, Christopher later complained that his father's heart "remained buttoned up all through his life." He eventually became confused between his own childhood and the fictional Christopher Robin. he could not remember, for example, if it was the real or fictional Christopher Robin who invented the game of "pooh sticks" in which sticks were dropped from a wooden bridge into a stream. He loved to sew and knit and gloried in taking clocks apart. He writes later that he was just rescued as a child from becoming effeminate, referring to his smocks and sewing. As was common at the time for affluent parents, Christopher was sent off to boarding school at about 8 years old where he was taunted about sissy Christopher Robin and Winnie the Poo by his school mates. Many of his schoolmates had grown up having the Christopher Robin books read to them as small children. He learned to box to defend himself. He later wrote several books describing the impact of the series's immense popularity on his life: The Enchanted Places (1974), The Path Through the Trees (1979); and The Hallow on the Hill (1982). He described his father as a man using his young son's childhood to stave off his own middle age. His criticisms of his farther seemed a bit overdone. I don't know much about his mother and nannies. Would be interesting to know.
Milton, John - (UK, 1608-74): John Milton, the author of Paradise Lost is consiered by many to be the greatest poet of the 17th century. He is note for his powerful, rhetoric prose and the eloquence of his poetry. Milton also wrote pamphlets defending civil and religious rights. Milton was raised in a wealthy family and received an extensive educatiin. His family's wealth accorded him the opportunity to devote himself to witing.
Mishima, Yukio - Japan (1925-70): Mishima is one of the most famous of Japanese 20th-century writers. His life was especially dramatic because he ended it with ritual suicide ("supuku"). The suicide is of course the climax of the film. Mishima came from a very aristocratic Japanese family. He continues to be a ignimatic icons of modern Japan, but his books are so rooted in traditional values. He was a strange combination of international literary darling, accomplished novelist and playright, a health enthuiast and body builder,
and if that was not enough, the founder of a private army in pacifist Japan. He advocated the samurai code. He carried out an elaborate plan for his own death. He occupied an army garrison with soldiers of his privare army and then committed ritual suicide. His life in told in a wnderful Japanese film, Mishima: My Life in Four Chapters.
Montgomery, Bernard Law - (UK, ): The renowned British World War II leader was strictly disciplined by his stern Victorian mother. His father was a minister and Monty spent his boyhood days in Tasmania. Once he was caught smoking. His father took him into the family chapel and prayed with him, after which he said that he had forgiven him. When Monty turned around, his mother was waiting for him and announced, "God may have forgiven you, but I have not." She marched him off to be dealt with. I do not have details yet on how he was dressed.
Moody, Dwight L. - (US, 1837-99): Dwight Lyman Moody was a noted 19th century American evalgelist and religious publisher. His father was a stone mason, but died at an early age and Dwight and his siblingsd grew up in abject poverty. He was raised in the Unitarian Church, but when he later worked for his uncle, was required to attend the Congrecational Church. He was converted by his sunday school teacher (1865). This began a remarkable career as a evangelical preacher. He founded the Northfield School and Mount Hermon School in Massachusetts (now combined as the Northfield Mount Hermon School), Moody Church and Moody Bible Institute in Chicago, and the Colportage Association. We note him supporting sunday schools for working-class children in Chicago at the time it was emerging as a major American city. J.V Farwell (1825-1908) was a millionaire philanthropist and coworker who gave land for the first YMCA building in Chicago.
Morgan, John Pierpont - (U.S., 1837-1913): John Pierpont Morgan was the greatest financier in American history. He was of Welsh origins and born into a Connecticut banking family just as the United states was beginning to begin its transition from a backwater mostly rural country with an expeimental republican government to the industrial powerhouse of the 20th century. HAfter finishing his high chool, he studied in Europe. He played an important role in financing America's transition. He became known as "The Master of the Money," He helped create both General Electric and U.S. Steel as well becomingb involved in rail roading. He became the nation's foremost banker and one of the most successful bankers in the age of the "Robber Barons." He was in effect the unofficial central banker of the United States in the period before the Federal Reserve. At the time he was hailed as a master of finance by some and as a cut-throat capitalist by others. hat image was imprtalized in a photographic portrait by Edward Steichen. That same dichotomy continues to be the case today, largely depending on how one views capitalism and socialism.
Morison, Samuel Elliot - (U.S., 1887?-19??): Sammuel Elliot Morison is one of America's most eminent and eloquent historians. One of his less serious, but most charming books is his autobiography, One Boy's Boston, 1887-1901, published in 1962 by Houghton Miffin Company, Boston. Sammy lived in the same house, located at 44 Bimmer St. in Boston his entire life. Sammy lived in this house with several generations of Morrisons, surrounded as it was with history. He was brought up with his mother, grandmother, and great-great aumt. One photograph taken in 1891 shows Sammy at 4 years of age wearing a white or pastel colored dress, long ringlets, and holding a toy in his right hand. He also wore Fauntleroy suits as a boy.
Morrissey, Martin - ( ): Author Martin Morrissey in his biography entilted The Changing Years gives some attention to his clothes. Chapter 12 is entitled 'The Long and Short of It' and this deals with the writer's personal experiences of short trousers and in Chapter 13 he gives some information about his first pair of long trousers.
Morton, Dudley "Mush" - (United States, 1907-43): Dudley Walker Morton known as "Mush" was the most famed American submarine commander of World war II. Morton was born in Owensboro, Kentucky. He graduated from the Naval Academy (1930). While at Anapolis he acquired his nickname 'Mushmouth' lzter shortened to Mush. He married in Tsigtao, China, a treaty port (1936). He commanded the fleet sunmarine USS Wahoo (SS-238) during the peak of the Pacific War, taking her on on five combat patrols. The Wahoo sank at least 19 Japanese ships, more than any other submarine during a comparable period. Morton and Wahoo never returned from the last patrol.
Mosley, Alexander (U.K.): Diana Mitford, one of the noted Mitford sisters (Nancy, Unity, Diana, Deco, and ???). Diana had two sons, Alexander and Max. The 1941 photograph image here shows the two boys and their nanny (figure 1). Alexander is about 2.5 years and Max,
14 months. Alexander wears a very short dresses without socks and the strap shoes or sandals which were commonly worn by British boys for school or summer play wear.
Mountbatten, Lord Louis - (U.K., 1900-19 ): On the excellent series on his life, which he narrated himself, he showed a picture of him on his mother lap. He commented that like small boys in that period, he was dressed as a little girl. The series also had other childhood pictures, but he was usually dressed in sailor suits. He was schooled at home until he was 10 years old. He glossed over his school days, but did talk about the strict discipline for "snotties" on Navy ships when he entered the Navy.
Mussolini, Benito (Italy, 18??-1945): Mussolini was an Italian newspaper editor who led the Fascist movement and seized control of Italy. He joined Hitler in the Axis alliance. He had three children. He and his mistress were killed by partisans at the end of World War II.
Nadar, Gaspard-Felix Tournachon - (France, 1820-1910): Gaspard-Felix Nadar is one of the photographic giants of the 19th century. He is of some interest to HBC because of the many portarits he took, including family prtraits. His life, however, cuts a wondeful swaith through the 19th century and the extent and diversity of his activities and talents is breath taking. Photography was probably his most financially rewarding enterprise, but it was in fact only one part of his many varied life works.
O'Neill, Eugene - (US, 1888-1953): Eugene O'Neill, the greatest American dramatist and winner of the Nobel Prize in 1936, was born in a Broaway hotel room in 1888. He was brought up in New York City and New London, Connecticut. He was the son of a famous romantic actor, James O'Neill and virtually raised in the theater. He accompanied his fanous father as he traveled around the country giving dramatic performanes. Eugene entered Princeton University (1906), but was expelled. He married (1909) and te young couple had a son, but divorced (1909). Eugene tried many different undertakings, gold prospector in Honduras, a seaman, but with little success. He lived in New York City's flophouses and drank heavily in cheap saloons. He contracted tuberculosis (1912). It was during his recovery while reading that he conceived the idea of writing plays.
Olivetti, Camilo - (Italy, 1868-1943): Camillo Olivetti was born in Ivrea, Italy (August 1868). We have no information about his childhood at this time. Ge do not know about his early education, but he attended the Politecnico di Torino. He studied under Galileo Ferraris. He graduatied with a focus on engineering. He went to England where he worked in a London factory to gain practical experience. England at the time was the most heavily industrialized country. He joined the socialist party while in England. Besides engineering, Olivetti was interested in cocial cencers, including federalism, local autonomy and democratic institutional reform. Olivetti was aare industrialist with such interests. While we do not have much information on his childhood, we do have some informaztion on his family.
Olivier, Sir Lawrence - (UK, 1907- ): The son of a clergyman, he grew up in a middle-class English family. I saw a lovely picture of him, he looked to be about 12 and he was dressed in a white sailor suit with a big black bow. He attended the St. Edward's School at Oxford. His first stage role was Katharina in an all boys production of Taming of a Screw.
Orff, Carl - (Germany, 1895-1982): Carl Orff was one of the most important German compsers in the 20th century. He is also noted for his work in music education. He was born in Bavaria during 1895. He came from a military family.
He studied at the Munich Academy of Music (19??-14). He served in the military during World War I. After the War he obtained musical positions at opera houses in Mannheim and Darmstadt. He also continued his musical education in Munich.
He was appointed head of a department and co-founder of the Guenther School for gymnastics, music, and dance in Munich (1925). Here he worked with young children and began to develop theories on music education. He was the author of the famous Carmina Burana (1937) which was very popular in Germany. He initiated a method of learning for small children based on rythm with percussions and xylophones and also on classical dance. This method was very popular in schools in Europe, mainly in Germany since 1924. It also spread to America.
Oswald, Lee Harvey - (US, 193?-63): The Kennedy assassin had a very difficult childhood. He was raised by a domineering mother who was extremely uptight about sex. They were also very poor. He had old clothes and the other children teased him. He hated school. His mother moved from the south to New York and he got teased more and about his accent. Finally they returned to the South, in part because of Lee's behavioral problems. His mother tried to control the lives of both her two sons.
Papandreouu, Andreas - (Greece, 1919-1996): Andreas Papandreouu is one of the best known Greek statesman and comes from a distinguished Greek family. The story of the Papandreou family begins on Chios Island and then continues to Patras, the United States, Athens, Sweden, Canada, and finally back to Athens). W know littlke about his childhood. He is recognized as Greek academic, politician, and statesman. He served as , Prime Minister of Greece (1981-1989, 1993-1996). He was born on the Aegean Island of Chios. His is the son of former Prime Minister Georgios Papandreou. He studied at the University of Athens and Harvard University. He served in the U.S. Navy and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He returned to Greece to become the country's first Socialist Prime Minister, although many prommised reforms were not achieved. He had three sons and a daughter.
Parnell, Charles S. - (Ireland, 1846-91): Parnell was the "uncrowned king" of modern Irish nationality. He was born into a protestant land-owning family in County Wicklow. His mother was an American. I understand he was dressed in petticoats as a boy, but haven't researched his life yet. He was schooled in England, which I understand he hated. He entered Cambridge in 1865, but did not get a degree.
Pasternak, Boris - (Russia, 1890-1962): Soviet author Boris Leonidovich Pasternak came from an artistic family in Tsarist Russia. He was the oldest child of painter Leonid Pasternak (1862-1945) and concert pianist Roza Kaufman. His father was well known for illustrating Tolstoy's novels. Boris was born in Moscow (1890). Here we have the portrait of Boris drawn by his father. Thes drawing (black crayon on white paper) was done July 20, 1898. Boris was 8 years old. Pasternak's attended a German Gymnasium in Moscow and then the University of Moscow. Influence by composer Scriabin, Pasternak, Pasternak at first prepared for ax career in musical composition (1904 to 1910). He finally decided that his calling was literature. Then came World War I and the Russian Revolution. Writing was a dangerous career choice after Stalin seized control of the Party and state. Pasternak seems to have steered clear of trouble by focusing primarily on non-political verse and doing translations. Trouble began irionicallyafter Stalin's death. Pasternak wrote his masterpiece, Dr. Zivago, but realizing it could not be published in the Soviet Union, had it smuggled to the West. It was published in Italy (1957). He was honored with a Nobel Prize for literature (1958). Soviet authorities using the KGB mounted a campaign against him. He was forced to decline the prize.
Figure 2.-- Soviet author Boris Leonidovich Pasternak came from an artistic family in Tsarist Russia. He was the oldest child of painter Leonid Pasternak (1862-1945) and concert pianist Roza Kaufman. His father was well known for illustrating Tolstoy's novels. Boris was born in Moscow (1890). Here we have the portrait of Boris drawn by his father. Thes drawing (black crayon on white paper) was done July 20, 1898. Boris was 8 years old. Source: Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.
Pepys, Samuel - (England, 1633-1703): Samuel Pepys had an impoverished youth as the son of a tailor. He rose to be the modern equivelent of a cabinent minister in charge of naval affairs. A meteric rise for someome of his station. The opportunity arose as a result of the Civil War, Cromwell, the restoration of Charles II, and the plague--a heady brew indeed. He is most noted for his dairy. Although he kept it for only 9 years, it is a remarkable look into the 17th century life. [Tomalin]
Pollock, Maurice - (U.K., 1885-1918): Maurice Pollock was an English child actor and played mainly girls. Most of his early plays were put on by his Mother, who was an accomplished actress. Interestingly he played Little Lord Fauntleroy on the London stage--a role often played by girls because they had long hair. Pollocknas many of his generation was killed on the Western Front during World War II.
Polo, Marco - (Italy-Venice, 1254-1324): The Silk Road played a major role in Medieval history. Marco Polo was the most famous Westerner to travel the Silk Road, reach China, and return. He was a boy when he began his remarable journey. Chinese goods weee known to the West, but China itself was unknown and Polo's account was seemibly so fantastic that he was at first not believed
Pontremoli, Emmanuel (France, 1865-1956): Emmanuel Pontremoli was a distinuished French Architect and archeologist. He was born in Nice, the son of a Jewish rabbi. He was interested in painting, but took up architecture, studing under Louis-Jules André. Pontremoli won the “Grand prix de Rome”(1890). We note a photograph of his family in their home during the early 1900s. He worked with Théodore Reinach on a project to build an ancient Greek villa--Villa Kerylos (1902-08), He was elected to the “Académie des Beaux Arts” (1922). He taught architecture at the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts and was appointed a director (1932). He also designed synagogues. One of his best known buildings is the Institute for Human Paleontology in Paris for Albert I, Prince of Monaco. We are not sure what happened to him and his family during the German occupation.
Presly, Elvis - (United States, 1935): Gladys Love Smith married Vernon Elvis Presley on June 17, 1933 in Verona, Mississippi. In December 1934, the young couple moved into a new two-room house on Old Saltillo Road in East Tupelo, Mississippi. This is where Elvis Presley was born a 4:35 a.m. on Tuesday, January 8, 1935. A twin brother, Jesse Presley, was stillborn, and buried the next day in nearby Priceville Cemetery. This is the earliest known photograph of the future King of Rock n' Roll.
Proust, Marcel (France, 1871-1922): Marcel's parents were solid French bourgeois. His father, Adrien Proust, was a respected doctor. His mother, Jeanne Weil, was from a prosperous, educated Jewish family from Alsace. Marcel was born in Paris during 1871 and the rise of the Pais Commune. He was a sickly child, suffering from asthma from his early childhood. We have only limited information on Marcel's boyhood clothes. Proust (and I think his bother) as a boy wore dresses and other skirted garments. He appears to have worn smocks in school. Gradually his different essays merged into one single project to write a more comprehensive work. The book turned into a novel that he would continue to write for the rest of his life. He mamed his book À la recherche du temps perdu (Remembrance of Things Past)--a classic of French literature.
Raleigh, Sir Walter: (England, 1552-1618): Sir Walter Raleigh was one of the important figures of the Elizabethan Age. Historians believe he was born about 1552 at Hayes Barton, Devonshire. He was a gifted courtier and became a favorite of Queen Elizabeth I. He was not only hansome and witty, but one of the Sea Dogs.
Randolph, John: (U.S., 1773-1833) Randolph was an American statesman born 1733 in Cawsons, Virginia. He was related to Edmund Randolph, Aide de Camp, to General Washington and Indian Princess Pocahontos. As a boy he appears to have worn adult-styled close and thde specialized boys' styles were just beginning to take hold. I'm not sure how he wore his hair as a young boy, but by the mid 1780s he was wearing it short, without a wig or queue.
Rasputin, Grigori Efimovich: (Russia, 1864/72-1916): Grigori Efimovich Rasputin was an uneducated Siberian mystic healer. He is one of the most picturesque figures of the 20th century. Virtually nothing is known about his childhood and early adult life. He was born in Pokrovskoe to a peasant family. The date of his birth is unknown, but there are many varied estimates (1864-72). This was a small, rural village in Tiumen Oblast. Pokrovskoe is in western Siberia on the Toura River near the foothills of the Ural Mountains. Pokrovskoe had only a few unpsaved streets. It was dominated by a large white church with a guilded dome. The gleaming church in the middler of a drab villsage must have affected the boys in the village. It certainly did young Grigori. Little is known about his education. Many Russians at the time received little or no education. Rasputin's education must have been very limited as he was illiterate. At a young age he developed a reputation for debauchery. Rasputin in Russian means the 'debauched one'. He also developed a reputation as a mystiqe and faith healer. And it it this reputation that unbelievably brouht him from Siberaian peasant poverty to the Tsar's household in St. Petersburg to save the Tsarevich Alexis.
Rathbone, Basil: Even as a child, Basildeveloped an interest in acting.
Books which he read then where the Sherlock Holmes books. He day dreamed about being this detective. Then one day he played him on the screen. Interesting, another childhood dream achievement story.
Ribbentrop, Joachim von - (German, 1893-1946): The NAZI Foreign Minister was reportedly rather dim, but did Hitler's bidding. He was the son of a demanding, whip lashing Prussian artillery officer who expected his unexceptional son to excel. I have no information on clothing yet. He spent some time in Britain in a private school. It did little good when he later came to britain as the NAZI ambassador. He had no feeling for British sensibilities and was seen as highly offensive. He had no real influence on Hitler, but slavishly did his bidding. He was found guilty of war crimes after the War and hanged.
Richardson, Friend - (U.S., 18??-19??): Friend William Richardson was raised from a Quaker family in Michigan. He was newspaper publisher. A state park in Humboldt County was named after him. He was govenor of California from 1923-27. A photograph in the 1920s shows him his 12-year old son at a National Guard camp wearing a knickers suit.
Riis, Jacob - (Denmark/U.S., 1849-19??): Jacob Riis was born in Ribe, Denmark during 1849. His parents had 15 children. He was the third oldest. I know nothing about his childhood and education, but know he became a carpenter in Copenhagen. He emmigrated to America after the Civil War in 1870. After coming to America, Riis had trouble finding work and for a while was homeless. Apparently the Police provided lodging houses for the indigent. I had never heard of this before.
Riis worked as a menial labor, but eventually became a journalist. This is of course quite impressive, because journalism requiring effective English-language skills is a difficult profession for foreigners to enter. He began working for a New York bureau (1873). He began working for the South Brooklyn News (1874). Then he became a police reporter for the New York Tribune (1877), one of the most influntial newspapers in America. As a result of his experiences, Riis became a crusader for the ppor. Riis argued against the prevailing attitude in America. He saw the poor as "victims" rather than the indolent who were responsible for their plight. Riis became one of the first photo journalists when he was hired by the New York Evening Sun. Riis began using flash powder which allowed him to photograph interiors as well as exteriors, providing images of slum live never before available. His images of children are especially poignent. He was one of the first muckraking journalist.
Rilke, Rene (Rainer) Maria (German, 1875-1926): Rilke was a German lyric poet was for a time served a secretary to the renowed French sculptor Rodin. He evetually obtained the patronage of wealthy Germans. His prose and verse his highly musical and pervaded by a strong religious mysticism. As a boy he was codeled by his mother. She developed refined tastes in him and dressed in frilly clothes. When his father abandoned the family, he had to pursue his education in harsh military schools where the other boys did not appreciate his refinements.
Roberts, John G. Jr. - United States, 1955- ): One of the primary goals of the conservative movement in the Unites States is to change the judicial philosophy of the Supre Court. His first Supreme Court appoint was John G. Roberts Jr. He was roundly received as a brilliant legal mind. Just where he will take the court remains to be seen. He was confirmed as Chief Justice with little opposition in the Senate. current nominee for the Supreme Court. Interesting when President Bush introduced him, the press had a great deal to say about hiw his children were dressed.
Roosevelt, Franklin D. - (United Sates, 1882-1945): The 30th president is generally considered to be the most important American statesman of the 20th century. He led America through the two most serious crises of the century, the Great Depression and World War II. He inspired confidence and despite his patrician origins came to be loved by the least favored Americans. Thus when other countries turned to totalitarianism and dictatorship, American democractic society grew stronger. His policies helped to give voice of the American worker through trade unions. The resulting prosperity of the American worker created the basis for the success of the American economy in the second half of the 20th Century. He was born into a wealthy family with an elderly father. He had a charmed childhood at his father's Hyde Park, New York estate. He was a cousin of President Theodore Roosevelt, whose niece he married in 1905.
Figure 3.--Future President Franklin Roosevelt in this picture taken with his father at about 6 years of age (1888) had his curls cut, but was still dressed in a kilt suit.
Rozerot, Jacques - (France, 1886?- ): Son of Emile Zola. There is a picture of taken in 1899 by a bicycle. I'd guess he is about 13 and has long, girlish hair and is wearing knickers and short black socks.
Rockefellers - (United States): The Rockefellers were as close to royalty as an American has ever had. The family's wealth was created by John D. Rockerfeller who turned the caotic American oil industry into a huge monopoly and in the process made himself the richest man in the world. He was raised frugally and despite great wealth raised his children frugally. The same was true to a lesser extent for the grand children who did wear more fashionable clothes.
Rosenberg, Alfred (Estonia/Germany, 1893-1946): Alfred Rosenberg styled himself as the chief Nazi philosopher. . Hitler felt some loyalty to him because he was an early NAZI member, but had little respect for him. Which is why he chose him to lead the Pasrty while he was jailed. He did not have to worry about being replaced. Rosenberg's best known book was The Myth of the Twentieth Century which postulasted the existence of two opposing races: the Aryan race which created all values and culture, and the Jewish race which was ace of cultural corruption. Hitler dismissed his books as writings no one could understand, but appreciate the justification for acting against the Jews. Hitler during the War appointed him Reichminister for the Eastern Occupied Territories. It proved to be a powerless appointment. Himmler had control of the police ad Göring controlled the economy. Rosenberg was seen as a weakling and sloppy administrator, disliked by alkmost all the other top NAZIs. Ironically, Rosenberg was right about the best NAZI policy for the EWast. He wanted to asppeal to anti-Bolshevik, nationalists elemebnts who were prepasred to receive the Germans as liberators and fight with them again Staln. Hitler had no time for such notions, especially the idea of armoing Slavs. He, Himmler, and Göring wanted to expolit the East as rapidly and ruthlessly as possible. Great crimes were commited in the East. But Rosenberg without control over the police or para-military formations was not responsible for the attricu\ities. His writings, however, helped lay the ideological foundation of the Holocaust.
Rothschild, Albert Salomon von (Austria, 1844-1911): Albert Salomon von Rothschild was a prominant banker in the Austro-Hungarian Empire and an important member of the Austrian Rothschild family.
Hw was born in Vienna (1844). His father was Anselm von Rothschild (1803-1874). His mother was Charlotte von Rothschild (1807-1859). He was their youngest child and known in the family as "Salbert". He went to school in Vienna and Brünn/Brno. When his father died (1874), his brothers (Nathaniel and Ferdinand) inherited most of the family's extensive real estate and art collection. Albert inherited the family businesses--baking and railways. The once extensive communication between Albert's Austrian branch of the family and the English branch had declined significantly. Albert took steps to revive the exchnge of commercial and political information. He married Baroness Bettina Caroline de Rothschild (1858-1892) of Paris, a daughter of Alphonse James de Rothschild (1876). They had seven children. The Baron appears to have enjoyed photographt as a hobby.
Rumsfielfd, Donald - (United States, 1931- ): Since the 911 attack on America, Secretary of Defence Don Rumsfield with his laconic, no-nonscence appearances at Pentagon news conferences has become the only media-star of the Bush administration. Don was the son of a naval officer during World War II. Before the War during the 1930s he wore coordinated sunsuits with his big sister. As an older boy during the War he wore self-belted short pants.
Ruskin, John (England, 1819-1900): John Ruskin was one of England's most respected Victorian thinkers. Some have called him the most influentional cultural figure of his day. He had a strict if protected childhood. While HBC at this time has little information on how he was dressed as a child, we do know that he wore dresses as a small boy. Available information, however, provides some fascination insights into child rearing practices in the Victorian era.
Ruth, George Herman "Babe" Jr. (1895–1948): The "Babe" also knon as "The Bambino" and "The Sultan of Swat" is perhaps the greatest ikon in American sports. The only close competitor has to be Michael Jordon. George was a handful as a boy as he grew up in Baltimore, Maryland. He was a big boy getting into trouble, so he was turned over to a Catholic orphanage--St. Mary's. The Catholic brothers probably saved him smd chsneled his energy into baseball. They got him on the Baltimore Orioles--then a mijnor league team(1914). Within months he was playing for the Red Sox. He played in the major leagues from 1914 to 1935. The Boston Red Sox sold Ruth to the New York Yankees (1919). This became known as the "curse of the Bambino", Boston never won a World Series again until 2004. It was, however, the making of the then moribund Yankees. Ruth was a central figure in laaunching the Yankee dynasty. The Yankees and Yankee Stadiym became known as "the house Ruth built". The Yankees moved him permanently to the outfield. This was important because it meant he could play every day and his hitting could come to the fore. His home run record of 60 held for 60 years (1927). He was much more than just a slugger. He became the greatest hitter in baseball history, dominating the American league during the 1920s. He lived large, his personal charm made him a major figure of the "Roaring Twenties". He kept had a soft place in his heart for kids all his life. He would visit orphans and pass out gifts.
Crane, Nicholas. Mercantor: The Man Who Mapped the Planet (Henry Holt), 348p.
Tomalin, Claire. Samuel Pepys: The Unequalled Self (Knopf: 2003), 470p.
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Created: September 20, 1998
Last updated: 11:21 PM 2/13/2012