Louis was one of Napoleon's younger brthers. Louis was born into the middle of the large Bnaparte family. Like his older brother, he was born in Ajaccio, Corsica. He joined the army. He served with his older brother in Egypt. Largely thanks to his brother, he was promoted to General by the age of 25. He did not really deserve such a prmotion. He himself came to believe that he had been promoted too fast. The Emperor also made Louis the Count of Saint-Leu. Napoleon decided to take control of Holland. He demanded Schimmelpenninck be dimissed (1806). He then insisted that his brother, Louis Napoleon, be invited to rule as king. The country was renamed the Kingdom of Holland. The two quarelled over a range of issues. Basically Napoleon thought that his brother was to prone to be influenced by the wishes of hs Dutch subjects and unwilling to follow directives from Paris. As a result, Napoleon dismissed him and took annexed the Netherlands. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte and Hortense had three sons. One died in childhood and the other as a young man. The third who received the name of his younger brother became the third Bonaparte emperpr of France. This occurred because Napoleon's direct line ended with the untimely death of his son.
Napoleon's parents were Leticia and Carlo Bonaparte members of a minor but impoversished aristocratic family.
Some Corscicans resisted French rule and fled to the mointains to fight. Carlo instead submitted, sensing that resistance was futile. He began practicing law. He was elected to the island's French Council. Napoleon never forgave his father and in later life never had a kind word for him.
Leticia was an austere woman with a steely determination. She gave birth 13 times and 8 children survived. She was a severe determination. She punished her children to teach them sacrifice and determination. The children would occassionally be sent to bed without dinner to teach discipline.
Louis was born into the middle of the large Bnaparte family. He was one of Emperor Napoleon's three younger brothers. He was a younger brother of Joseph, Napoleon, Lucien, and Elisa Bonaparte, and the older brother of Pauline, Caroline, and Jérôme Bonaparte. Napoleon's parents had 13 children and eight survived to adulthood. Their father died in 1785. Napoleon as the eldest son thus became head of his large and demanding family. He assumed this responsibility with some dedication and soon as First Consul and then ruler and eventually emperor he was in a position to provide not only favors, but titles including royal titles to his family. He appointed his four brothers to important positions, making them kings, dukes, and counts. His sisters he married of to established Europeam royalty. History has not been particularly kind to Napoleon's brothers. Lucian is generally see as intelligent and an able administrator. Louis ruled competently in Holland, although irritating his brother. Basically the family seems to have been rather a hinderance and distraction rather than a help to the Emperor. Had the Emperor succeeded, the Bonaparte family would have been the rulers and govered the destiny of Europe.
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was born September 2, 1779. His name was orginally Luigi Buonaparte. Like his older brother, he was born in Ajaccio, Corsica.
He joined the army. He served with his older brother in Egypt. Largely thanks to his brother, he was promoted to General by the age of 25. He did not really deserve such a prmotion. He himself came to believe that he had been promoted too fast. The Emperor also made Louis the Count of Saint-Leu.
Hortense de Beauharnais was one of the children of Napoleon's first wife and true love, Josephine. Joséphine decided that her daughter Hortense would be the perfect wife for her husband's younger brother Louis. Joséphine was not popular with Napoleon's family. Perhaps Joséphine saw this as a was of tieing her family to her husband's family. Neither Hortense or Louis liked the idea. Napoleon backed his wife, however, and insisted that Louis marry Hortense (1802).
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte and Hortense had three sons. One died in childhood and the other as a young man. The third who received the name of his younger brother became the third Bonaparte emperpr of France. This occurred because Napoleon's direct line ended with the untimely death of his son.
Napoleon Charles Bonaparte was born December 10, 1802. He is the boy on the portrait here with his mother (figure 1). His title was Prince Royal of Holland. He wears a classic red skeleton suit--the height of fashion in the early 19th century. The two here make such a charming pair that it is sad to report that the boy died not too long after the portrait was painted. The boy died on May 5, 1807. His untimely death was a great tragedy for his parents, especially his mother, and the Bopnaparte family. When he died at 4½ years of age in 1807 of diphtheria. His parents reigned in Holand. The boy's body lay in state at Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris--an indication of the importance given to the tragedy. and is buried at Saint-Leu-La-Foret, Ile-de-France.
Napoleon Louis Bonaparte was born October 11, 1804. Napoleon Louis lived to adulthood, but died relatively young. After the death of his older brother, he was next in line in family senority. Napoleon Louis died on March 17, 1831. He is buried at Saint-Leu-La-Foret, Ile-de-France. After his death, it was his younger and only surviving brother, Louis Bonaparte, who became the Emperor Napoleon III of France in 1851.
Charles Louis Napoleon was born in Paris> He was the third and youngest son. He succeeded in becoming Emperor Napoleon III of France (1852-1870). French Emperor Louis Napoleon or Napoleon III was a nephew of Napoleon I. Louis was the son of Louis Bonaparte who his brother had installed as King of Holland for a brief time. He was largely
raised by his mother, Queen Hortense and his father who was estrainged from his mother was rarely present. He was very closed to his older brother. Napoleon III seized power in France from the short-lived Second Republic. He conducted a disastrous foreign policy, leading to the unification of Italy and more importantly the emergence of the militariy orinented Prussians as the leading power in Germany. This was to leading to the loss of his crown and Alsace-Loraine in the Franco-Prussian War and the unification of Germany by Prussia.
We do not have a great deal of information about how the children were dressed. The red velvet skeleton suit seen here must have been Queen Hortense's favorite outfit for Napoleon Charles. He also wore it at his grandmother's corronation (December 1804). From this we can assyme that the boys were breached at a fairly young age. And afterwards they wore skeleton suits like the one here when dressed up. I am unsure what they may ahve worn for play and everyday wear. A later image of Napoleon Charles' brothers shows very different garments in 1812. the younger boy (Charles Louis) with long hair and the older boy (Napoleon Louis) wearing an above the knees tunic with long silk stockings but without visible pantalettes.
Napoleon decided to take control of Holland. He demanded Schimmelpenninck be dimissed (1806). He then insisted that his brother, Louis Napoleon, be invited to rule as king. The country was renamed the Kingdom of Holland. Louis traveled north and reached The Hague (June 23). Contrary to some expectations, he was well received. Many Dutch thought that Napoleon might simply annex their country. Louis preceeded to implement some badly needed reforms. He introduced a single currency throughout the country. He compiled and implemented a penal code modelled basically on French law. He also adopted a range of progressive measures
concerning health care and education. Considering the fact that he was French and had been imposed on the Dutch, he actually proved fairly popular. Louis' wife Hortense was a daughter of Emperess Joséphine. Neither Louis's rule or the marriage proved successful. One of their children was to rule France subsequently as Napoleon III. Napoleon wanted a compliant ruler in Holland. His brother proved less than satisfactory in his judgement. Napoleon introduced the Continetal System severing all trade with Britain (November 1806). This proved very unpopular and costly to the Dutch who were a trading people many found ways of evading
controls. Louis annexed East Frisia (1807). Louis oversaw the founding of the Royal Academy of Sciences, Literature, and the Arts in Amsterdam and the Royal Library in the Haag (1808). Louis introduced a law code based on the French Naopleonic Code (1809). Louis gained considerable popularity by aiding the victims of floods (1808 and 1809). The British invaded Walcheren (Zeeland), but in part because of Louis' popularity achieved little success (August-December 1809). Even so, Napoleon was not happy with his brother's rule in Holland. He did not think that the Dutch resisted the British in Zeeland with much enthusiasm, but was incensed with wide spread evasion of the Continental System and trade with Britain. Napoleon insisted that his brother ceed the south of Waal and Merwede to France (March 1810). Louis was unable or incapable of standing up to his brother. He complied with his brother's demands but was unhappy. As a result he abdicated (July 1).
Louis Napoleon died on July 25, 1844. He is interned at Saint-Leu-La-Foret, Ile-de-France.
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