Transportation infrstructure from the beginning was a key factor in the CBI theater. The primary reason the Japanese invaded Burma was to close the Burma Road so they could complete their conquest of China. India had some of the best infrastructure in Asia with the exception of Japan. India's transport system was base on the rail system the British built. That system did not, however, adequstely support the war effort once the Japanese launched the Pacific War and invaded Burma. Suddenly the war that had begun in Europe and seemed so far away was on India's eastern border, although few Indians were aware of the German and Japanese racial and imperial doctrines and what it would mean for their country. The Germans launced a massive pseudo scientific effort to odentify racial tagets. Except for the percecutio of the Jews this seems to hve passed largly innoticed in India. Yje Japanese did not turn their racial attitudes into a pseudo science, but again it passed largly unoticed in India where racism was seen primarily as a European afliction.
As eastern India became the front line in the War, the focus shifted to infrastructure. Easrern India, espexially the northeast was an area without a modern transportation network. The rail system in the northeast was weak and the roads virtually non existent. Huge quantities of supplies were needed to defend India. And India became the conduit for getting supplies to China as well base areas to drive the Japanese out of Burma. Moving these supplies meant improving India's infrastructure, especially the infrastructure in the northeast. At first supplies had to flown in over the Hump, but par of te reason for retaking Burma was to reopen the Burma Road. And thee military forces needed to retake Burma demanded imporoved rail and road improvements. The initial American plan for the strategic bombing campaign foresaw using bases in China. The conquest of the Marianas, howeverm opened up even better bases and an easier logistics chain. Still there were air operations in China and against Japanese forces in Burma that neded to be suported. And the British after repelling the Japanese invasion of India gradually built up Empire forces to retake Burma. The effort required delivering large quanities of supplies to formerly remote areas of northeast India. The fighting in the CBI areas was mostly done by Empire forces. American efforts focused largely on air oprtations and logistics. Airfields had to built in India. The major American interest was reopening the Burma Road to supply China. The major projct with the port of Rangoon in Japanese hands was the Ledo Road, but this also involved improving Indian rail and road infrastructure. The Japanese after naval losses in 1942 faced the same problem which is why they built the infamous Thai-Burma railway. This was, however, a minor effort (a single track rail line) compared to the more substantial infratrure projects lunched by the Allies. This supply problem would doom both Japanese invasion of India as well as their ability to hold Burma.
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