** World War II -- Norway German occupation

World War II Norway: German Occupation

Norwegian World War II German occupation
Figure 1.--The German occupatyion of Scandinvian countries and the Netherlands was different than hat of many other countries, primarily because they saw 'valuable racial material' that could be harvested. The German population was much smaller than that of the countries Hitler set out to dominate. This German propaganda photograph shows a German soldier biking along a beach and apparently asking two Norwegian boys something, apparently from a newspaper. A problem with these uncaptioned images is figuring out just what we are lookinng at. Now I doubt that the soldier stopped in the middle of nowhere to read a newspaper and ask the boys what was in it. And the boys did not speak German nor the soldier Norwegian. It does look rather like a newspaper the soldier had. (American readers should understand that European nrespapers were not like the massive daily newspapers we read.) We think it was a posed photograph set up by an official German photographefr to show amicable relations with the occupied Norwegians. It looks like they are on a beach being used by military vehiches. The photograph was apparently taken in the summer, a few months after the German invasion. We notice quite a few images like this taken by German photographers. We suspect the Germans knew that they were not going to win over many adults, but might be able to win over he young people--just as they had done in Germany through the Hitler Youth. This looks like an official photograph, not a snapshot taken by an individual German soldier. Source: Bundesarchiv Bild1011-750-0141-20A. Photographer Max Ehlert.

The German World War II occupation of Norway began with the invasion of the neutral country (April 9, 1940) and lasted until the liberation following the German surrender (May 8, 1945). Except for Poland, Norway and Denmark were the two countries occupied by the NAZI for the longest period. The character of the occupation, however, was very different because of the NAZI racial policies which saw the Nordic population of Norway and Denmark as having racial value. Norway was continuously occupied by the Wehrmacht during this period and for reasons known only to Hitler, it was proportionally the most heavily garrisoned country in the NAZI Empire. The Reichskommissariat Norwegen (Reich Commissariat of Norway) became the civil authority throughout the occupation. The Reichskommissariat worked with the collaborationist Quisling puppet government. Quisling entered the English language as synonymous with traitor. Initially, Quisling was frustrated that the Germans did not give him the power he sought. There were other NAZI-sympathizers, but not many. King Haarkon and the legitimate government managed to escape to Britain and set-up a government-in-exile in London. The NAZI occupation authorities appointed leaders and local officials. Quisling's pro-NAZI Nasjonal-Samling (NS) colleagues were appointed to head labor unions and other organizations. The Germans banned all political parties except the NS. They Reichskommissar Terboven ordered several important security operations. He imposed martial law on Trondheim in the north. He destroyed the village of Telavåg. NAZI authorities considered Norway to be a rich source of Nordic breeding stock. There were no organized kidnappings that we know of, but some sources say that Norway was not immune to occasional NAZI kidnappings. More importantly, there were extensive liaisons between the large number of German soldiers and Norwegian girls. Norway is a small country. It also had a small Jewish population. The Jewish population in 1940 totaled about 2,100 people, about 1,500-1,600 were Norwegian citizens. Quisling immediately after the German invasion launched actions against the country's Jews.

Reich-commissar Terboven

At the time of the German invasion, the pro-NAZI Nasjonal-Samling (NS) had about 2,000 members. Quisling was ready for the invasion. He became the first person in history to announce a coup on a news broadcast. He announced the formation of a new government withb himself as prime-minmister. Because of his links to Hiller, he hoped that the Germans would recognize his government. Hitler while personally impressed with Quisling, had a practical side and realized that Quisling had virtually no domestic support in the country. Hitler thus established the post of Reich-commissar to govern his newest conquest. Reichskommissar Josef Terboven took over the civilian administration of the country (1940). Hitler chose Terboven who was the NAZI Gauleiter of Essen because of his reputation for toughness. Reich-commissar Terboven dissolved all Norwegian political parties except the pro-NAZI Nasjonal-Samling (NS) (September 25). The occupation regime was run administered by 13 commissars. The NAZIs installed a puppet Government under Vidkun Quisling. The name Quisling became synonamous with 'traitor'. Quisling as leader of the NS had tried to convince Hitler that he could form a government which would support a German occupation. Hitler was not at first interested. Quisling attempted to form a government immediately after the invasion. The German occupation authorities did allow him to become the nominal leader. The actual authority was in the hands of Reichskommissar Terboven. He attempted to negotiate with members of parliament that had not fled the country and form a governmental cabinent that might have some legitamcy. This effort failed as the parlimentarians fior the mot part showed little interest in colaboration. As a result, Reichskommissar Terboven turned to Quisling who was appointed head of state. Quisling while head of state had to rely almost entirely on the Germans. Terboven like Quisling was despised in Norway. Over time, Terboven lost creditabilty with Hitler. Goebbels writes critically about him in his diaries. He realtically understood his fate at the end of the War and committed suiside bu ecploding a huge dynamite charge in his bunker.

Quisling Government

While Reichskommissar Terboven appointed Vidkun Quisling to serve as head of state. Quisling had very little public support. The NS itself was very small. Some additiojal members joined after the occupation, but not very many and membership tapered off when the War turned against the Germans. And the NS did not have a substantial party militia. Any substantial act of force required the German security forces. Quisling was well aware of the limited support for him and the NS. He was convinced that the Germans would win the War and thus Norway's future lay in his relationship with Hitler and the NAZIs. Quisling believed that by overseeing a degree of economic stability and by persuing Norwegian interests with the Germans that he and the NS would gradyally be accepted by the Norwegian people. Quisling remained in power until the German surrender (May 1945) after which the Germans withdrew from the country.

NAZI Sympathizers

The famous Norwegian writer, Knut Hamsun (1859-1952), who won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1920, and who lived in the United States for a while, became a Nazi sympathizer. He admired Hitler so much that he proclaimed "Hitler was a warrior for mankind" and that on May 7 1945!

German Occupation Policies

German military forces (the Heer, Luftwaffe, and Kriegsmarine) were under the direct command of the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht i(OKW). Political power was vested in the Reich Commissioner (RC). The Germans attmpted to reach a Danish-like accomodation with the Norwegians. King Haakon and the Nygaardsvold Government refused. The Germans than attempted to negotiare with the Storting. But then Hitler decided to to give Quisling and the NS a chance (September 1940). In the end, the Reich Commisioner Josef Terboven maintained control theough the Reichskommissariat. He issued a range of regulations designed to support the German war effort. He banned all political parties except Quisling's NS and appointed a new council of ministers--mostly NS men. Later it was replaced by an entirely NAZI Government with Quisling as a figurehead minister-president (February 1942). Power lay with RC Treboven. He appointed NS members to positions of authority down to towms and villages. Labour unions and other organizations had to accept NS leaders. Although Norwegians resented both the Germans and the NS there was little choice, but to cooperate for economic reasons. The German occupation cut off Norway from its major trading partners. And this meant food imports. Thus Norewgians suffered severe shortages. Making it very dificult to resist the Germans. The Norwegian Central Bank accomodated the RC needs and policy directives. The Norges Bank's directors, including Governor Nikolai Rygg, decided stay in their positions during the occupation. And the Germans found no need to replace them. They gave the RC and the Wehrmacht unlimited access to the Bank's printing press and thus all the bank notes they desired. as in other occupied countries, the Germans exploited the Norway, both directly and indirectly. One of the principal methods was to overvalue the Reich mark. There were also a range of forced subsidies. [Boldorf and Okazaki] The Germans obtained both aliminum and pyrite in Norway for the armaments industry. Fish was also shipped to the Reich, but the essential value of Norway was to ensure the seasonal transport of Swedish iron ore to Germany. The RC also implemented NAZI racial laws. This meant that the population was decently treted on peronal basis, at least in relative terms. As in all occupied countries, the NAZIs set up concentration camps. People showing any sign of resistance were arrested, totaling some 44,000 people. The Germans deported 9,000 of those arrested to camps in Germany. [Libæk, Stenersen, and Sveen] At the same time the Germans brought in slave laborers (mostly Soviet, Polish, and Yugoslav) who were brutally treated. Labor waneeded to build coastal defenses as part of Hitler's Atlantic Wall. The racial laws affected Norway much less than most countries occupied by the Germans. The Norwegian population was Nordic and there was only a small Jewish population and more than half fled to Sweden.

Civilian Life Style

The Germans introduced many new regulations restricting freedom of movement. Violations were harshly punished. People were forbidden to sing Norwegian songs or to say anything critical about the Germans. People had to turn in their radios and thise found hiding radios were arrested. Newspapers were banned to prevent Norwegians from learning about what the Germans were doing or how the War was developing, especially as the War began growing against Germany. Rumors spread about what happened to those arrested by the Germans. Norway lost access to its trading partners. Instead Norway had to trade with Germany. The Norwegian economy continued to operate, but the Germans began confiscating a substantial portion of the output. Some estimzyes suggest over 50 percent. [Berg, p. 403.] Shortages quickly devloped. Food and consumer goods were rationed. Food was a special problem and became an inceeasing problem as the War went on. Ration cards were needed to buy foods and clothes. Eggs, cream, meat, butter and sugar were in short supply. Long ines appeared where ratins werredistribued, Imported goods disappeared from shops. Fruit, tea, and coffee became almost impossible to obtain. People did what they could to produce their own food. They fished, hunted or farmed what land they had. In the country and amall towns people could raise pigs. Rabbits and chickens were less demanding but you needed feed to raise animals. City parks were divided up into allotments where people could their own vegetables such as potatoes and cabbages. . Gray and black market appeared. As in Germany ersatz products appeared, specially for coffee, tea, and tobacco. The Germans did not allow people to frrely move about. One concern of the Germans was people escaping by crossing the border into Sweden. Unlike manu other countries, the Germans were unable to seal off Norway. The Germans evacuated some Norwegian for various reasons. Some Norwegians who were teenagers at the time recall being moved by trucks into the couuntryside where local families had to take them in. Others remember ther school buildings being taken over by the German military. They attended school in churches. Many teenagers had to work for the Germans, assigned to harvesting fruit and vegetables and peeling potatoes.


NAZI occupation policies on education varied from country. This is not a topic we have found easy to research. There were so many momentous actions conducted by the NAZIs, that schools and education have often been ignored by historians. We see some comments that the NAZIs closed trhge scgools. This did happen in the East (Poland and the Soviet Union), but not generally in Westtern Europe). The situation in Norway is more complicated. The NAZIs and collaborationist Government did not close te schools other thsan the universities, but many schools did close. This was partially due to the fact that the German occupation authorities seized school buildings to be used as barracs for German soldiers or other purposes. Hitler had a special fixation on Norway. As a result there was a very large occupation force. And the Germans had to seek out barracks. School buidings were simply the most available. It was not a German decision to end Norwegian education. In fact there was a Quisling Minister for Church and Educational Affairs--Ragnar Skancke. There were efforts to NAZIfy the schools and other cultural institutions like churches and sports clubs. This was something the BAZIs did not attempt in other occupied countries like Denmark, France, and the Netherlands. We suspect it was primarily an effort pursued by Norweshian Quislings and not the German occupation authorities. The Germans never turned the country oiver to Quisling although his Nasjonal Samling Party played a major role. Reichskommissar Josef Terboven was the German civilian German occupation authority. He appointed a council of Norwegian ministers to assist him govern occupied Norway (September 1940). He appointed Skancke Councillor of State for Church and Educational Affairs with the title of Minister (September 1941). Skancke was a noted scientist who was largelky apolitical. He had refused a post offered by Quisling at he time of the German, but accepted Terboven's offer. We are not entiurely sure why. Perhaps he assumed that the NAZIs had won the War. HJis work as Minister is controversial. He was not one of the more slavishy NAZI Quislings. He generally was fairly passive, but he did use theauthoirity proivided him to deal ficifully with anyone whoi opposed his directives. He was not a major figure in NAZIfying the Norwegisan churches and schools, he did dimiss bishops, priests and teachers who ressted NAZIfiucation efforts are demonstated any opposition to National Socialist princioples. ["The Bishop ...."] He also ordered Norwegian teachers and school children to attend a Hitler Youth demonstratiomn in Oslo (February 1941). It is thought that this was to be a step in requiring Norwegian children to join the Nasjonal Samling (NS) youth unit, the Umghird. There was still optimism among Quislings and Germans that the Norwegians could be coverted to National Socialism. German youth had been among the most fervent suppoters of Hitler in his rise to power. The Germans did not generally promote the Hitler Youth in occupied countries. Nordic countries for racial reasons were an exception. The order led to the first school strike during the occupation. This meant mostly authors who had fled to Britain or Sweden. Another example of resisting the NAZIs was delaying enforcement of an order from Reichskommissar Terboven (July 1941). Terboven ordered that all Norwegian church bells were to be removed from the churches and shipped to Germany for smelting and use by the war industries. Eventually a freustrated Terboven handed over the assignment to Minister of Trade Eivind Blehr (1942) who also refused to comply. Terboven eventually gave up. The efforts to NAZIfy the schools, churches, and sports clubs rsulted in actions (variously dismisal, arrest and/or deportation of many teachers. They were replaced with more 'compliant' individuals. They were usually replaced with poorly qualified, but politically reliavble individuals. Not only were many schools converted to German barracks, buy some parents took their children out of schools and home-schooled them or had them study in schools organized in private homes. The schools, the Church, the Supreme Court and sports clubs staged protests and organising boycotts. Many assoiciated with these iunstitutions resigning state positions. Students at the University of Oslo eventually became became a target. The Germans comducted mass-arrests and the closed the University (November 1943). [Fure] The resistance movement was particularly strong among young people, both secondary- and universuty age students. Not only the University in Oslo stuydents after iut was closed, but also the Technical University in Trondheim were hot beds of anti-NAZI resistance. Closing schools directly ir indiectly (using the buildings for barracks) only intensified the resistance effort.

Increasing Severity

German occupation policies were in part determined by race. As result the Nordic Norwegians were a fvored people. But cooperation was also important. The Danes had not resisted so the occupation there was relatively correct. The Norwegians had so the occupation was somewhat more severe. It shoul be understood that these were war time decisions designed to cause s little disruption as possible. Once the Germans won the War, Denmark, Sweden, and Norway would have been annexed and become NAZIfied. The same would have been true of the population which wold have been Nazified just as in Germany. Ant resistance woyld have been supressed just as in Germany. The Germans seized full power in Norway (September 1940). NAZI rule was relatively light through 1941. Many Norwegians which had at first fled to Sweden returned, even many soldiers of the former Norwegian Army. Norway was one of the few outposts of the NAZI Empire where it was not only possible to escape, but refugees would be cared for and not returned. The long Swedish border was impossible ti seal off. The number of Norwegian refugees in Sweden were only a few thousand (late 1941). This began to change in 1942. Several factors were at play. The NAZI military jugernaught came to a screeching halt in the snow and ice of a Russian winter (December 1941). The Red Army Winter Offensive before Moscow inflicted serious losses on the Wehrmacht. The Germans had thought they had won the War, but now were in fought for their lives, not only with the Soviets in the East, but with the Americans joining the British in the West. The Germans began demanding more from the occupied countries, including both food, natural resporces and labor for the war industrie of the Reich. As ore and more German workers were consripted for military service. Ration allocations were cut abd cut again. Foreign labor was needed to replace them. The Norwegian Labour Service (NLS) was similar to other agencies set up in occupied countries. Young men rather than allowing themselves to be conscripted and sent to the Reich, escapd into the forrests. Many sought refuge aross the border in Sweden. One source suggests that Norwegian NAZI Vidkun Quisling desired to form an army that could be deployed on te Eastern Front. This was an effort that many NAZI leaders in occupied countries used to raise their status in Hitler's eyes. His idea was to conscript some 70.000 men. His plan was discovered by the Norwegian resistance who attemoted to convince yoing men to even avoid registration. This only increased th number of young men fleeing into the ciuntry side to join the resistance or to flee to across the border to Sweden. Quisling for his part entered the English language meaning a traitor, a person who collaborates with an enemy occupying a country. One NAZI objectives was to Nazify the University of Oslo. The universities in Germany had been NAZI hotbeds. They were an important part in the NAZIs gaining a hold on the German people. In Norway, however, NAZI ideas had little appeal. The students were devolted to both democratic ideals and Norwegin nationaism. Several abti-NAZI incidents occurred. The Germans raided the University (morning of November 30, 1943. Some 1,500 students and professors were arrested. Half were sent to concentration camps in Reich. Some of the students managed to escape to Sweden. With young men escaping this mean there were more recruits for the resistance. The British SOS also became more active. Both caused increasing ations by the Germans.


Vidkun Quisling's fascist party, the Nasjonal Samling (NS), was the only political party permitted in Norway by the German occupation forces. Quisling saw himself as the Norwegian Hitler and wanted all the trappongs of the NAZI dictatorship. He commonly used words and symbols from the old Norse Viking era--just as the NAZIs did. As a result, Quisling formed a party para-military force--apeing the NAZI Sturmabteilungen (SA). Quisling's organization was called the Hirden, meaning 'birds'. Membership in the Hirden was compulsory for NS members. The group totald about 8,500 men and older teenagers. This included elderly men. Norway was a small country, but even in Norway, 8.500 was not a large number. The Hirden was disbanded after the War and many of members were prosecuted and convicted for treason and collaboration. Hirdvaktbataljonen was heavily involved in terrible attrocities. Hitler became convinced that the Allies were planning to invade and liberate Norway. as a result as he began building the Atlantic Wall, he devoted substantial resources to defensive instalations long the Norwegian coast. Toaccomplish this, the Germans brought in large numbers of forced laborers from Yugoslavia. The Hirden was used as part of the guard force for camps set up for the Yugosalv workers. There are reports that the Hirden guards were very brutal, even by German standards. In addition to brutality at the camps, Reichskommissar for Norway Josef Terboven ordered the murder at Lager I Beisfjord (No. 1 camp Beisfjord) of 288 Norwegian political prisoners (July 18, 1942). There were youth units, including a marine (navy) and girls unit. This is not unusual, many European political parties had youth units. The Hitler Youth Movement began as a unit of the NAZI SA.

German Security Operations

Reichskommissar Terboven ordered several bloody security operations. He imposed martial law on Trondheim in the north and surrounding areas, during which 34 Norwegians were killed by extrajudicial execution. A series of photos showing German soldiers posing with bemused Laplanders This served as a pretext for the arrest and detention of all male Jewish inhabitants of the area as part of the Holocaust in Norway. Terboven destroyed the village of Telavåg on Sotra island near Bergen. Reichskommissar Terboven personally oversaw the brutsl action (April 30, 1942). The Germans assembled the villagers. All their buildings were destroyed. Boats were sunk or confiscated. The livestock was taken away. The men were either executed or deported to the NAZI Sachsenhausen concentration camp. About half of those men were murdered. Unlike many other NAZI reprisal actions, the women and children were not murdered. The were imprisoned for 2 years and then released. Terboven was also personally involved in the arrest and deportation of Norwegian Jews.

Occupation Forces

Norway was the most heavily occupied country during World War II in terms of country population. The Germans commited several hundred thousand men to occupying Norway, eventually some 0.5 million troops. The ratio was an incredible one German soldier for every eight Norwegians. It was a huge strategic miscalculation. There were several important advatages to holding Norway, including guaranteeing iron ore shipments to the Reich and aur and sea opeations against Allied Arctic Convoys to the Soviets. NAZI Germany was, however, heavily outnumbered by the Soviets and Allies. It simply did not have the manpower reserves to garison a country like Norway that did not play a central role in the war. World War II was largely decided on the Eastern Front. This meant that the substantial Norwegian garrison played only a minor role in the War. Actually the Norwegian garrison had a rather pleasant war with no one shooting at them unil the final months of the War when the Soviets began to make headway in the far north. This involved only a small part of the German garrison. For German soldiers, Norway was one of the best assinments of the War, rather lkike France before D-Day. Nor did the German garrison play an important role after the Allies crossed the Channel with the D-Day landings and began the drive toward the Reich. As part of the planning for Overlord, the Allies tried to convince the Germans that an invasion of Norway was being planned. This was not very convincing for military commanders, but Hitler's fixation on Norway apparently helped prevent the Germans from drawing down and redeploying the Norwegian garrison. Actually not only Hitler was fixated on Norway, but so was Churchill. Both before and after the German invasion, Churchill wanted to invade Norway. He was, however, never able to convince War Cabinet which constantly rejected the idea or the Americans who were focused on the Cross Channel invasion. The German garrison included 6,000 SS troops commanded by Obergruppenführer Wilhelm Rediess.


NAZI authorities considered Norway to be a rich source of Nordic breeding stock. There were no organized kidnappings that we know of, but some sources say that Norway was not imune to occasional NAZI kidnappings. More importantly, there were extensive liasons between the large number od German soldiers and Norwegian girls. More than 0.5 million German soldiers were stationed in Norway during the War. Virtually all the off-spring would be racially acceptable. Himmler regarded as direct descendants of the Wikinger, and therefore German soldiers were incouraged to have affairs with Norwegian womem. Lenensborn homes were established throughout Norway. One source suggests that there were nine homes set up, almost as many as in Germany. The homes were very attractive. The women got excellent care and good food. Conditions were very difficult during the occupation and the community would have been very hostile to women having the children of the German soldiers.

Disaproval of Terboven

Terboven was not just disliked in Norway. He encountered disapproval from Berlin as well. Terboven despite his reputation for toughness soon proved to be a disappointment to Hitler. This can be seen in Goebbel's diary. He writes, "Terboven intends to deliver a radio address bitterly attacking the Bishop of Norway, who has acquired notiriety because of a number of stupid remarks. I advised him most urgently to keep hands off. I consider it beneath our dignity and harmful to our authority for a Reich commissioner in an area occupied by us to attack a public personage without, at the same time, saying how we will punish him. You attack without punishing only when you have no power. If you have power, you arrest and punish and give the reason why." [January 27, 1942--Goebbels, p. 52.] Goebbels becomes increasingly critical as time goes on, referring to him as "the most hated man in Norway" and "a bull in a China shop". The cleric they were talking about was Dr. Eivind Josef Berggraf (1884-1959) who was the Luthern Bishop of Oslo. He eventually resigned to protest NAZI actions against Norwegian churches (1942). The Gestapo arrested him (March 1943). Quisling wanted him shot. He was, however, not deported or executed. He survived the War. Clerics througout Norway resigned in protest to his arrest, a stunning affront to bith Treboven and Quidsling. Dr. Berggraf was hononered by Time Magazine with a Christmas cover. ["The Bishop ...."] Hitler objected to Terboven's closing of the University of Oslo because of the uoproar in the international media, espcially in Sweden which by the end of 1943 was beginning to lose its fear of a German invasion.


Norway is a small country. It also had a small Jewish population. The Jewish population in 1940 totaled about 2,100 people, about 1,500-1,600 were Norwegian citizens. The Norwegian Jews were largely concentrated in Oslo and to a lesser extent Trondheim. The NAZIs after conquering Norway intalled Vidkun Quisling to head a puppet Government. Quisling also confiscated Jewish property and immediatey ordered the Norwegian police to begin arresting male Jews over 15 years old. The police took the male Jews of Oslo to Bredveit prison. They were then sent to the Berg internment camp near Tonsberg over the next 2 weeks. The women and children were arrested soon after (November 25). Virtuallyall those transported were killed, mostly at Auschwitz. About half of Norway's Jews were saved by the Norwegian underground, which helped them reach neutral Sweden which took them in. This saved about 900 Jews. The underground operation was conducted at great danger.

Displaced Children

The Germans occupied Norway early in the War (April 1940). Norway ptoved useful to the NAZIs as naval and air bases made it difficult for the Royal Navy to bottle up the U-boats in the North Sea. Norway was also an important source of raw materials. Later after the invasion of the Soviet Union, the Germans were able to launch devestating raids on Allied convoys delivering war materials to Murmansk and Archangel. The NAZIs much admired Norway as a rich source of Nordic Aryan breeding stock. We do not yet have details on the extent to which the Lebensborn program may have operated in Norway. There does not seem go have been any organized kidnapping program as was the case in the East. The Resistance was active in Norway and numerous Norwegians were arrested and executed by the occupation authorities. We do not have details on their children. Most seem to have been taken in by family. The Germans maintained a substantial army of occupation. Later in the War, the Allies tried to convince the Germans that they were planning an invasion, to discouraging the Germans from drawing down the occupation force to strengthen the Atlantic wall in northern France. Thus over th 5 year occupation of Norways, there were many liasons between German soldiers and Norwegian women. After the War, these women were shunned. Over 10,000 children were born with German fathers. These children were also shunned and harassed. They were bullied at school and descriminated against when they began working. The Norwegian parliment finally offered a small cash payment as retribution (March 2005).


Berg in Klemann, Hein A.M. and Sergei Kudryashov. Occupied Economies: An Economic History of Nazi-Occupied Europe, 1939-1945 (2011).

Boldorf, Marcel and Tetsuji Okazaki. Eds. Economies Under Occupation: The Hegemony of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan in World War II .

Cohen, Maynard M. A Stand Against Tyranny: Norway's Physicians and the Nazis.

Espeli, Harald. "Central banks under German rule during World War II: The case of Norway," Working Paper (Norges Bank's Bicentenary Project.

Fure, Jorunn Sem. Universitetet under nazifiseringspress.

Libæk, Ivar, Øyvind Stenersen, and Asle Sveen. History of Norway from 1814.

"The Bishop and the Quisling," Time Magazine (December 25, 1944).


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