The Holocaust: Individual NAZI Ghettos

Figure 1.--This is a rare color photograph from the Lodz Ghetto, Unfortunately it is not dated, but we would suspect was taken in 1940 or 41, obviously in the summer. Click on the image for more information.

The NAZIs established Ghettos in major Jewish population centers throughout their occupation zone (western Poland) in Poland almost immediately after invading Poland (September 1939) began steps that would lead in less of a year to forcing Jew into ghettos. The largest ghetto was in Warsaw. Other important ghettos were established in Lódz, Kraków, Lublin, and Lvov. The core of each was pre-War Jewish neighborhoods. The NAZIs established some other ghettos after the Operation Barbarrosa invasion of the Soviet Union which included eastern Poland and the Baltic Republics. These ghettos were, however, much more transitory than the original ghettos in western Poland. Each of these gehettos has their own well documented and tragic story. The NAZI ghettos were mostly in Poland as a result of the large Jewish population in Poland. There were ghettos established in other countries as well. The most important was Terezinstadt in Czechoslovakia. Some short term ghettoes were established in 1942, we think most must have been opened after Barbarossa in the former Soviet occupied area of Poland.

Piotrekow (Poland, November 1939)

The NAZIs established the first Jewish ghetto at Piotrekow (November 28, 1939). This was a small ghetto. It provide an opportunity for the Germans to perfect the organizational process of establishing ghettos. The process, however, proved more difficult than the NAZIs had abnticipated.

Kutno (Poland, early-1940)

The importance of the Warsaw Ghetto leads people to assume that all the NAZI ghettos were walled in formal entities. Because of NAZI actions against the Jews as well as that of NAZI allies (Croatia, Hungary, Romamia, and Slovakia), temporary camps were set up all over Eastern Europe where Jews were confined before killing actions were organized or they were deported to the death camps. One of the camps was at the Polish town of Kutno. The ordeal of Kutno's 6,700 Jews began during the German invasion (September 1939). SS units murdered many of the town's Jews. Later the survivors were confined to a debris scattered lot on the outskirts oftown (early 1940). There were few houses there, the internees had to assemble shacks as best they could from the debris they found there. The SS set up barbed wire to fence them in. Many died as a result of malnutrition and lack of shelter during the winters of 1940 and 41. Finally the Jews still alive were transported to the nearby Chelmo death camp wehere they were murdered (March 1942).

Lodz (Poland, May 1940)

Lodz is one of Poland's largest cities. It is located in what was at the time eastern Poland. Before World War II it was the home of Pland's second largest Jewish community, second only to Warsaw. About 230,000 Jews lived in Lodz. The Germans only 7 days after invading Poland seized Lodz. Within days after seizing the city, attacks on Jews Began. Jews were beaten and their property stolen and seized. The first official anti-Jewish measure occurred on Rosh Hashanah (September 14, 1939). Fighting was still underway around Warsaw. German authorities ordered Jewish shops to remain open, but closed the synagogues to close, making it impossible for Jews to celebrate their holiday. The military situation deteriorated rapidly. The Soviets invaded (September 17) and Warsaw suremdered (September 27). after which resistance collapsed. The Germans annexed areas of eastern Poland including Lodz into the Reich and changed the city's name to Litzmannstadt. Litzmann was a German general who was killed during World War I while trying to take Lodz. For several months the Germans carried out daily round-ups of Jews for forced labor. There were also indescriminate beatings and killings on the city streets. To simplify the task of identifying Jews, authorities issued regulations requiring Jews to wear a yellow star armband (November 16, 1939). A month later the regulation was changed to the yellow Star of David badge (December 12, 1939). Friedrich Übelhör, NAZI governor of the Kalisz-Lodz District, drafted a secret memorandum explaining the need for a ghetto in Lodz (December 10, 1939). The NAIs confine more than 160,000 Polish Jews to the Lodz ghetto (May 1940). Large numbers of Jews from the ghetto were sent to Chelmno and gassed to death, some of the earliest mass killings (January 1942). The ghetto was finally liquidated as the Red Army was moving east through Poland.b The remaining 70,000 Jews were sent to Auschwitz-Birkenau (September 1944).

Warsaw (Poland, October 1940)

Warsaw was the cultural center of Jewish life in Poland. About 30 percent of the city's population was Jewish. It was the largest Jewish community in Europe.Frank ordered all Warsaw Jews on October 3 to move to the predominately Jewish part of the city which was now called the Warsaw Ghetto (Otober 3). He then ordered it to walled off. The entarnces were then sealed off from the rest of the city and closely guarded by the NAZIs. Jews had previously lobed throughout the city without restruction. There had been about 0.25 million Jews in the Jewish section. Now 0.15 million more had to find acommodation there as well as for those arriving in future transports. Many within the Ghetto had to move. Jews had to abandon their property except what they could carry on bring in a hand cart. The Germans administering the Ghetto delighted in humilitaing the Jews in the initial phase of the Ghetto. Jews would be ordered to kiss the pavement or search for bits of paper in mud, all the time being beaten. [Gilbert, p. 345.] Much worse was to come. Some 500,000 Polish Jews were are forced into the Warsaw ghetto. The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising was the single most important Jewidh act of defiance against the NAZIs (April 1943).

Szydłów (Poland, December 1940)

We hace limited, somewaht contradictory, information on the Szydłów Ghetto. The village is today a small community in southeastern Poland. It had a long history of Jewish life. The Szydłów synagogue was built in 1538 and is one of the oldest surviving synagogues in Poland. With the third partition of Poland (1795), Szydłów became part of the area annxed by Austria. During the Napoleonic era, Szydłów became the seat of a county in the Duchy of Warsaw (1809). After Napoleon's defeat, it became part of Congress Poland (1815). After the 1848 Revolutinsm, Russian authorities liquidated Szydłów County, merging it with Stopnica County (1850). The Riussians than as a punishment for participation in the January Uprising, Szydłów was reduced to the status of a village (1869). Much of the small population (only about 1,000 people in he 19tyh century was Jewish. With the creation of the independent Polish state after World War I, Szydłów becane part of Kielce Voivodeship. The population has increased to 2,200 inhabitants, of which some 30 percent were Jews (1929). They operated almost all of the village shops. The Germns opened a small ghetto in Szydłów for Jews in the village and surrouding area. We are not sure when the Ghetto was opened, but we know it was operating by December 1940. The Germans forced Jews from Radom into the Szydłów Getto, but it was not enlarged (late-1940). Jews from Plock arrived (February-March 1941). This meant that the population of the Ghetto was larger than that iof the village. The Germans began reducing the Ghetto in 1942. Some sources say that the Germans established the Ghetto (January 1942). More likely that was when they closed the already exisgting Ghetto. The Germans deported some 2,000 Jews to Jędrzejów (April 1942). Subsequently tey were transported to Treblinka where they were murdered. Some Szydłów Jews were transported to the Chmielnik Ghetto. The Germans in a series of Aktions arrested and deported the remaining Ghetto population to their death in Treblinka (October 1942-January 1943). Much of the village was subsequentky destroyed in German anti-partisan operations and then resisting the Red Army advance. After the War, six Jews who had survived and tried to return were killed by the Poles. A. Sabor, Sztetl. Śladami żydowskich miasteczek: Działoszyce – Pińczów – Chmielnik – Szydłów – Chęciny. Przewodnik, Kraków 2005, p. 118-120. A. Sabor, Sztetl, p. 137. >

Wierzbnik (Poland, ??)

Wiercbnik was a small town in central Poland. JThere was a Jewish population of about 5,400. Jewish Survivors remember it as a pleasant place to live. One survivor remember it as "a nice Jewish life". It was not without anti-Semitismm but Jews there seem to have enjoyed a secure and relatively prosperous life style. It was a cobservative place with a provincial atmosphere. The NAZIs after occupying Poland established a small ghetto there (??, 1940). It held nearly 6,000 Jews. Unlike the big city ghettoes, a wall or even a fence was no constructed. They simplu posted signs.As part of Operation Heydrich, the NAZIs liquidated the Ghetto (October 27, 1942). The NAZIs shot 60-80 Jews in the process of liquidating the Ghetto. Most of the Jews, about 4,000, were transported to Treblinka to be killed. This would have included all the children, many mothers, and the elderly. About 1,600 were sent to slave labor camps at Starachowice. Here there was a chance of survival as munitions were produced there, a product important to the NAZI war machine. Only about 200-400 of the Wierzbnik Jews survived the War.[Browning]

Kielce (Poland, March 1941)

Kielce at the time of World War II was a town in south-central Poland, toiday it is southeast Poland. There were about 24,000 Jews living there, about a third of the population. German armies moving north from occupied Slovakia reached Kielce early in the campaign (September 4). The Germans immediately began taking actions against the Jews, including lootings, shootings, and press gangs. Kieelce became part of the General Government and more organized, legalized suppression of Jews began, including fines, confiscating property, forced labor, and a range of other anti-Semetic actions. The Jews were forced to identify themselves with armbands. A Judenrat was established. The first chairman was Moses Pelc who refused to collaborate adequately with the SS and was as a result deported to Auschwitz. Jews in the town were forced into slave labor at a nearby ammunition plant. Jews from surronding villages were forced into the town. A transport of Vienna Jews arrived (Fenruary 1941). Jews in the town were forced to move into a Ghetto (March 31, 1941). This was one of the smaller ghettoes established throughout Poland. The Germans began to liquidate the ghetto as part of Operation Reinhard (August 1942). Most of the Kielce Jews were transported to the Treblinka death camp where they were murdered upon arrival. After 5 days only 2,000 Jews were left in the Ghetto. The survivors were transported to a forced labor camp before also being sent to Treblinka. Hermann Levy who had replaced Moses Pelc was killed by the SS (September 1942).

Crakow (Poland, March 1941)

Crakow is a major city in southern Poland. The Jewish community dated from the 14th century. The Jewish community there was one of the most important in Europe. The Jewish population in 1939 was about 60,000, this was a quater of the city's population. The Wehrmacht reached on September 6, 1939. The Germans disbanded Jewish organizatins and created a Judenrat to oversee Jewish affairs. The city's Jews were ordered to evacuate the city (April 1940). They were given 4 months to do so. About 35,000 Jews left the city and 15,000 were allowed to remain. The NAZIs made Cracow capital of the General Government (NAZI-occupied Poland). A ghetto for the remaining Jews was established (March 1941). It accomodated about 20,000 Jews. This included about 6,000 Jews from neighboring areas. The NAZIs began deportations to the death camps (June 1942). The first transports were 5,000 Jews transported to Belzec. Another 6,000 Jews were transported to Belzac (October 1942). Patients at the hospital, residents of the old age home, and 300 children at the orphanage were killed. Several hundred Jews were hilled in the ghetto. There were resistance groups acrive, including the Jewish Combat Organization and Akiva which merged with a left-wing group to form ZOB. The NAZIs liquidated the ghetto (March 1943). The surviving Jews were transported to the Plaszow labor camp. Oscar Schindler was a German businessman who had come to Crakow to benefit from the opportunities created by NAZI policies. He found and operated a formerly Jewish factory in the Zablocie district. He used his factory to save 1,098 Jews from the Plaszow camo. Speilberg's film "Schindler’s List" was filmed at the site of the Cracow ghetto. Only about 2,000 Cracow Jews survived as well as some who had made it to the Soviet Union.

Lublin (Poland, March 1941)

The NAZI Lublin governor Zörner announced the creation of a ghetto (March 1941). The oldest and poorest part of the historical Jewish district Old Town was chosen. NAZI authorities several days before establishing ghetto forced about 14,000 Jews out of Lublin. Most were poor and unemployed. They were resettled to several small towns around Lublin. We are not sure just why this was done. The decesion to begin killing had not yet beeen made or at least not communicated to subordinate commanders, so the need for concerntration was not yet fully understood. Some of these residents returned to Lublin without permission because of better conditions and a general feeling of safety in numbers. Around 40,000 Jews were present in Lublin when the ghetto was established. The Ghetto at first was a residential zone and not closed. Jewish movement was regulated, but they were not yet confined into the Ghetto. They were prohibited from entering the 'Aryan streets'". Nor were the Jews forced ingo the Ghetto. Quite a few Jewish families lived outside the Ghetto. This was especially true of Jews with specialty skills working for German institutions. As a result, conditions in the Ghetto were not as bad as in Warsaw and Lodz and other ghettoes where food shortages were becoming severe. Many Jews in the Lublin ghetto had some contact with the outside world which meabt some access to food. They were able to smuggle food into the Ghetto. Nazi newspapers commented on a widespead black market. NAZI authorities finally closed the Lublin Ghetto (March 1942). By this time the killing had begun at Chelmo and the death camps were nearing completion for Operation Reinhard.

Minsk (Soviet Union--Belarus, July 1941)

Jews were reported in Minsk (15th century). The city was at times both Polish and Lithuanian. Tsarist Russia seized the area as part of the Polish partitions (18th century). After the Polish-Soviet War, Minsk became a part of the Soviet Uniion (1921). The city had a large, important Jewish communities in the Tsarist Empire. Soviet aurthirities reported a Jewish population of 53,700, or 41 percent bof the city. [1926 Census] After the outbreak of World War II (September 1939), the population of Jews increased as Polish Jews fled their NAZI occupied homeland. The NAZI invaded the Soviet Union (June 22, 1941) and within days reached Minsk (June 28). Within hours the German authorities assembled 40,000 men and boys (15-45 years of age) for registration. They included Jews, Red Army POWs, and non-Jewish civilians. They were held in an open field surrounded by barbed wire, floodlights, and machine guns. Then the German authorities ordered Jewish intelectusals to identify themselves (July 1). Most did expectging some preferential assignment. The 2,000 men who did were msrched into a nearby forest and shot. Another 100 Jews were shot (July 8). Some killings became almost daily events. The Germans formed a Judenrat by selecting ten men almost at random. Eliyahu Myshkin, the former vice-director of the Ministry of Commercial Trade, was selected tobhead the council. Its first assignment was to register the Jewish population of Minsk. They completed the registration (July 15). The Germans ordered the Jews to wear a yellow badge on their chest and back, as well as a white patch on their chest identifying their house number. The Germans formally established the Minsk Ghetto (July 20, 1941.)

Vinnytsia (Soviet Union--Ukraine, July 1941)

Vinnytsia is a town in the west-central Ukraine on the Southern Bug. It dates bavk to the middle ages. The modern history of the town is tragic. Just before World War II, the NKVD murdered individuals as part of the Great Terror (1937-39). A mass grave reveals that several hundred people, mostly men, were shot. This was done clandestinely and there were no court procedures. They were mostly men, adults of varying ages. It is believed that they were invividuald thought to be Ukranian nationlists. The NKVD action was not brought to light until discoered by the Germans during World War II. The action is similar to the Katyn killings, but these individuls are Ukraniabs and not militay officers. After the Red Army recoocupied the area, all mention of the incident was supressed. Before the NKVD killings were brought to light, the Germans as part of Operation Barbarossa occupied Vinnytsia (July 19, 1941). Some of the town Jews escaped to the east. The remaining Jewss were immediatelky enclosed in a ghetto. This was presumably done by the Whermacht. Ghettoes in the Ukraine were diffrent than in Poland, because the killingbegan immeditely. Thus they were essentially temporary holding pens until the Einsatzgruppn arrived and began killing them. The Germans began the killing a week after the town Jews wer hereded into the Ghetto. They shot 146 Jews in the town (July 28). Presumbably this was an Einsatzgruppen action. We are not sure how these individuals were selected, but the mass killingsdid not begin until a few weeks later. Wesuspect that the Germans were planning how to dispose of the bodies. Sootings resumed (August). The bulk of the town; Jews were shot in pits, some 28,000 people (September 22). An iconic photograph of the action was found in a photographic album of a Eibsatzgruppen officer. He wrote on the back, the last Jew of Vinnytsia. The Germans remporarily spared a few adults (craftsmen, workers and technicians) that were seen as useful. As they were not welkl fedor treated, they were also shot once they sickened abd were unble to work. The action in Vinnytsia is similar to similar actions througout eastern Poland, the Baktics, Belarus, western Russia, and the Ukraine duting the summer and autumn of 1941.

Kovno/Kanaus (Lithuania, August 1941)

The German invasion of the Soviet Union was launched (June 22, 1941). Within days most of Lithuania was in their hands. Attacks on Jews began soon after the NAZIs had seized control. The first organized pogrom was reported (June 25). Kovno was modern Knaus. Most of the origuinal Jewish residents were killed before the Ghetto was established in the pogroms that occurred after the NAZI invasion. Many of the Jews were killed in an old Russian fort--the Ninth Fort. The Germans first established a civilian administration under SA Major General Hans Kramer to replace te initial military rule. This Lithuanian provisional government was officially disbanded in only a few weeks. Krmaer has already set in motion the Holocaust in his brief period of control. He began the preparation for the Ghetto. The Lithuanian military commandant of Kaunas Jurgis Bobelis was put in charge. Laws were enacted to legitimize actions against Jews. Kramer also authorized the auxiliary police to assist NAZI authorities. The Germans began concentating Jews in desolate suburb of Vilijampolė/Slobodka. This had been a Jewish village for 400 years. It was an area of shoddy houses without running water. The Jews who survived the initial pogroms in Kovno were ordered to move into the new ghetto (July). They sealed the Getto (August 15). At the time 29,000 Jews were interned there. Initially there were two sections, the Small and Large Ghetto. At first there was a relative degree of security within the Ghetto compared to the attacks on Jes that had followed the German invasion. The Jews attempted to reorganize their lives within the Ghetto. They organised a symphony orchestra, lectures, art classes, discussions, and Yiddish classes for the children. This did not last long. The Germans soon launched upon a process off steadily reducing the ghetto. Tere were several forced relocations. The Germans and Lithuanians auxilleries destroyed the small ghetto (October 4). Almost all of the Jews there were shot at the Ninth Fort. Only three weeks layer the Germans staged the "Great Action" (October 29). They shot an estimated 10,000 Jews at the Ninth Fort. The SS assumed control of the ghetto and turned it into a concentratin camp (autumn 1943). The SS after establishing the concentration camp deported more than 2,700 people from the main camp (October 26, 1943). The SS selectedcthose judged fit to work to labor camps in Estonia. The children and elderly not selected were transported tp Auschwitz and killed. The Germans finally liquidate the Ghetto (July 1944). Those who had survived up to that time were transprted to NAZI concentration camps where they were killed. Men were transported to Dachau and women to Stuffhof. About 500 Jews from Kovno escaped both from work details and directly from the Ghetto, and managed to join Soviet partisan forces in the forests of southeastern Lithuania and Beylorussia. Of the 37,000 Kovno Jews, only about 3,000 survived.

Wolbrom (Poland, Autumn 1941)

Wolbrom is a town in what is now south central Poland. It was the location of one of the oldest Jewish communities in Poland. At the time of World War II, about 60 percent of the population was Jewish. The Germans reached the town 4 days after invading Poland and launching World War II (September 5). Wolbrom became part of German occupied Poland--the General Government (October 1939). This was the area used by the Germans to deport Jewish and Christian Poles from the areas annexed to the Reich. The Germans then set up a Judenrat and chose Yehiel Engelrad to head it. The Germans began to deport Jews to Wolbrom (mid-1940). Some 3,000 Jews weredeported from nearby Krakow . Governor General Frank was intent on making Krakow Jew Free. There were no faciloties in the town to accomodate the refugees. he Germans were restricting food and other supplie for the existing population. As a result conditions detriorated for the Jews leaving in cramped conditions. The Judenrat did what they could in the face of intolerable conditions. The Judenrat distributed available food at a 'symbolic' to provide some sustance to people living on starvation rations. The Judenrat set up a sanitation department staffed with two doctors and a pharmacist. The Germans closed what had become a jetto (autumn 1941). It contained 8,000 people crammed togethe in dreaful conditions. The Germans conducted a terrifying Aktion as part of Aktion Reinhard (September 5, 1942). In just 1 day a community dating back centuries was obliterated. German SS and Ukranians began killing some 600 mostly elderly Jews in place. Most of the rest of the Ghetto was transpoted to the Belzac dath camp where they were murdered upon arrival. An unknown number of Jews who were judged 'fit for work' were sent to Plaszow and other slave labor camps. The Germans allowed a fews hundred Jews to remained in Wolbrom, primarily the families of the Judenrat and the Jewish police. They were ordred to sort the property of the murdered and deported population. They were confined in the Study Hall surrounding the hospital. Only 2 months after the first Aktion and with the valuables sorted, the remaining Jews were marched to a nearby forest and shot.

Riga (Latvia, October 1941)

Riga is an important Baltic sea port with a fascinating medieval history. The city was founded by Germans who conquered and Chritinized the Latvian people. Riga became an important Hanseatic port. Like much of northern Europe Latvians sonverted to Protestantism during the Reformation. The Russians absorbed Riga into the Tsarist Empire during the Great Northern War. Latvia briefly gained independence during after World war I and the Russian Revolution. Anti-Semitism existed in Latvia, but was not particularly pronounced, but there were Fascist groups that has abnti-Semetic beliefs. This changed dramatically when the Soviets seized and occupied Latvia (1940). Many Latvians felt that Jews colaborated with the Soviets. While the Latvian Government had restricted anti-Semtitism, this was no longer the case when the NAZIs invaded the Soviet Union and quickly occupied Riga. About half of Latvia's small Jewish population lived un Riga. Within a few weeks the NAZIs forced the cuty's Jews in a small Ghetto (August-October 1941). The Riga police began registering Jews in the city, shooting a number of Jews in the process. Some NAZIs wanted to use the Jews in the Ghetto for slave labor. The Ghetto was, however, very short lived. The NAZIs emptied the Ghetto (November-December 1941). The NAZIs told the Jews that they were being transported east. Instead the Jews were marched to the Rumbuli Forest and shot. There were almost no survivors.

Terezinstadt (Czechoslovakia, November 1941)

The Terezin Concentration Camp was actually a small ghetto as families were allowed to say together. It was located in what is now the Czech Republic. Terezinstadt, a former fortress near Prague turned into a concentration for Jewish families. The Gestapo after the NAZIs seized Czechoslovakia (March 1939) converted Terezin's Small Fortress into a police prison for the Prague Gestapo (June 1940). The next year the SS established a ghetto and concentration camp for Jews in the Large Fortress and town of Terezin (November 1941). Nearly 140,000 Jews werev deported to Terezin from the Czech lands, as well as the Reich, Denmark, Hungary, the Netherlands, and Slovakia. About 34,000 of those Jews died at Terezinstadt. It was a so-called show camp that the NAZIs used for propaganda purposes. Conditions at Terezinstadt were somewhat better than at other camps. The NAZIs used the camp to show the world how well they were treating the Jews. As reports began to leak out about the killing of Jews, the NAZIs used Thereisenstadt to show to the Red Cross and Western journalists on fact-finding missions. Here the NAZIs used the camp to prove that deported Jews were being treated well. Terezinstadt was a rare ghetto/concentration camp that foreign obsevers were allowed to see. A Swiss Commission wrote a glowing report. These inspection/fact finding visits, however, were infrequent. Camp authorities carefully briefed the Jewish inmates as to howthey were to behave beffore these visits. Terezin played a key role in the Czech holocaust.

Rzeszow (Poland, December 1941)

Rzeszów was a town in southern Poland (now southeastern Poland. At the time of World War II, some 14,000 Jews lived there, about a third of the population. The Germans invaded Poland (September 1, 1939)) and reached Rzeszów on September 10. The Soviet Red Union, at the time a NAZI ally invaded Poland (September 17). Rzeszow was near the demarkation line separating German and Soviet occupied Poland. The Germans Germanized the town's name as Reichshof. German actions against the Jews began within days with executions of men driven from the town's synagoge. The Germans set up 10 forced labor camps in the region and many youth and men from Rzeszów and surounding region became slave laborers. This reduced the number of Jews, but Jews from the countrysude were forcibly concentrated in Rzeszow some 4.000 people. The Jewish population was about 12,000 people (June 1940). The Germans through confisctons and other controls began establishing an informal ghetto during 1940, although this was not formalized for some time (December 1941). As the ghetto was already largely formed, they closed it only a few days later. Many Rzeszów Jews managed to reach the Soviet-occupied Poland, although crossing over was dangerous. Life in Rzeszow as in other the ghettos became unbearable, most importantly because of the starvation-level food supplies the Germans allowed into the ghetto. In all some 20,000 Jews from Rzeszow and the surrounding area were murdered. Many Rzeszów Jews died of starvation and illness even before the deportations to the deat cmps began. Some 2,800 Jews who managed to survive the slave labor camps were was transported to the newly reopened Szebnie concentration camp (fall 1943). Soon after arrival they were transported to Auschwitz (November 5). Only 100 Rzeszów Jews are known to have survived in the town. fter the war an additional 600 Rzeszów Jews managedto survive in the Soviet Union.


Browning, Christopher R. Remenbering Survival: Inside a Nazi Slave Labor Camp (Norton, 2009), 375p.

Gilbert, Martin. A History of the Twentieth Century Vol. 2 1933-54 (William Morrow and Company, Inc.: New York, 1998), 1050p.


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Created: 9:25 PM 3/19/2008
Last updated: 10:57 PM 1/5/2015