The World War II refugee/displaced persons problem is an emensley complicated topic involving a large numbers of people. NAZI Germany was at the heart of the refugee problem, but the Soviet Union also played a major role. Other countries were involved in a variety of ways both in creating, attempting to utilize the refugee issues, and efforts to assist refugees. Belgian refugees featured prominently in World War I discussions, but this time there were relatively few. There were large numbers of French refugees, but after there country surrendered to the Germans, most retuned home after a montyh or so of flight. The Germans created large numbers of refugees in Pland by deporting Jews and Poles from areas annexed in Western Poland. The Jews were first ghettoized and then murderd. The Poles were left to their own devices in the General Government, but syuffered greatrly because of the German Hunger Plan. The refugee problem was at first limited because the early German vicgtories were so overwealming and swift. People in these countries had little time to flee and no where to which to flee. The ensuing guerrilla war in Yugoslavia did create refugees. The Gernman invasion of the Soviet Union created huge numbers of refugees with whuch Soviet authorities had difficulty coping, largely because a substantial part of the contry's agricultural land was occupied by the Germans. The Soviets also created many refugees. Courtries varied greatly in how they addressed the refugee problem over time. After the German surrender, the orincipal refugee problem was getting the millions of people brought into the Reich for forced labor home. Poland had an esoecially severe problem as the Soviets deported large numbers of Poles in eastern Poland to western Poland. While the Germans created much of the problem, there were also large numbers of German refugees. First they were fleeing the advancing Red Army. Than after the War, the countries of Eastern and central Europe deported ethnic Germans.
There was no major refugee movement in Africa during World War II. Few Ethiopins fled as a resukt of the Italian invasion (1935). a result of the German invasion, some Some French people tried to get to North Africa (Morocco and Algeria) (June 1940). The NAZIs began talking of Madagascar as a Jewish reservation, meaning a palce to kill Jews where no one would notice. When the Italians invaded East Africa, the Royal Navy evacuated the military and civilians to Aden (August 1940>). There was an Italaian civilian populatoim in Libya. TheFascist Governent incourafed smigray=tion to the Libya, especially farmers. The Italian npopulation,g=howeverm, wascconcentrated in the cities. When the fighting began the Italiamns in rural areas for security reasons also moved into the cities--mostly Benghazi and Tripoli. They did not flee with the Afrika Korps after El Alemain. There was no way to get back to Italy until adter the War and even then it was difficult to do so necuase of conditioms in Italy. Many Italians remained in Libya until independence (1961), The Arab population was not significantly affected by the fighting.
There was no World War I fighting in Latin America The cloest Katin America came ti fighting was the Naval Battle of the Rio Plata (1939) and attacks on Latin Amerucan merchant shippimf. Cuba and Brazil mengaged in operations against U-boats. There were no Latin Anerican refugees, but some refugees sought rfguge in the vregion. Mexico accepted refugee children from the Spanish Civil War (1936-39). Countries accepted few Jewish refugees. Cuba fanmously refused to accept refugee German Jews anopard the MS St Louis (1939). There were incidembts with other liners (Orionoco and Flandre). Ironically it was pro-Axis Argentina that took in more Jewish refugees than any other Latin American country--some 43,000. This was in spite ofd Argentiune regulations rather than because of them. Neignoring countries vonducted a profutablr trade in selling entry visas adter which many Jews illkegally enteredvASrgenyina to take advatage of the more prosperous economy aided by the well-established Jewish v=comminmity. [Newton, p. 395.] After the War, countries in the regioin accepted European refigees. We do not have a lot of information. There was quite a numbers of European refugees, in part because of a desire to aid fellow Catholics. The war damage and economic condirions in Germany caused amy to emigrate, NAZIs were able to eelnd in with the overall flowm. Somecountries actually baided NAZIs. Argentine President Juan Peron secretly ordered the country's diplomats and intelligence officers to establish escape routes through ports in Spain and Italy to smuggle thousands war cruminals and BAZI Pparty members out of Europe. Other rehional leaders turned a blind eye. This caused the region to ne labeled as a NAZI haven. The prevalent anti-Semitism was also a factor. s
The World War II fighting in Europe and Asia did not reach North America. The Japamese occupied the Aletutian Islands (1942), but neither island had a civilian population. Both America and Canada did play a role in the refugee
crisis that began with the NAZI percecution of Jews and political opponents. The NAZI persecution of the German Jewish community and political opponents brought a wave of prominent individuals who made major contributions to America. Many described in gtaphic detail what was going on in Germany. There was long list of prominent individuals both from Germany and later the occupied countries that came to America. This deptived the Geramnsn of large numbers of talented individuals and greatly aidedv in both the American war effort and post War-expamsion of America which can be see in Noble Prize awards. America took in refugeesm but only as part of its normal immogray=tion qiota. There wa s no special effort made to save Ruropean Jews. There were efforts to nsave refugees as Allied armoies advanced in Europe during the War. Onkyb after the War eas an imprtant effort made to admit regugees. Canada made even less effort than America, evemn measured in proportiomal terms. One outcome of the War wasv a signifian shift in public outlook and the diappearnce of anto-Semitism from polite society.
The NAZI persecution of the German Jewish community and political opponents brought a wave of prominent individuals who made major contributions to America. Many described in gtaphic detail what was going on in Germany. There was long list of prominent individuals both from Germany and later the occupied countries that came to America, including Marlina Detrich, Peter Drucker, Albert Einstein, Thomas Mann, ??? Salard, Edmund Teller, and many more. These many destinguised individuals made great contributions to American arts, medicine, music, science, and many other fields. America is much the richer for their invaluable contributions. Others were just children when they emmigrated before and after the War, but would make valuable contributions of their own: Madeline Albright, Peter Drucker, Andy Grove, Henry Kisinger, Tivi Nussbaum, George Sorros, and others. The publicity certainly affected how Americans thought about Hitler. It did not, however, affect the stringly isolationist views of most Americans, it may in fact only strengthened them--at least at first. Also America and other countries had severe limitations on immigration, especially Jewish immigration. The Depression caused many countries to limit immigration, to save avaialble jobs for unemployed Americans. Anti-semitism was also a factor. President Roosevelt was struggling at the time to gain support for his efforts to defeat the isolationists and assist the British and French which made an additional struggle on immigration virtually impossible.
Canada like America has along history of accepting refugees. A major test of this welcomig tradition for poppressed people occurred after the NAZI seizure of power in Germany (1930s). As with America, let alone countries with out a tradition of accepting refugees, Canada did not live up to its best traditons. Grman Jews as the NAZIS tighted their grip, pleased for entry visas from any country. Canada with vast unoccupied land grudgingly accepted a mere 4,000 German Jews.
The Depression was pat of the reason, but more important was blatant and wide-spread anti-Semitism permeated Canada. As in the Unitd States, there was little public support for Jewish immigration. And considerable overt opposition. With the outbreak of the War, it was too late, but Canadian opposition to Jeish refugee immigration did not change until after the War. Europe was awash with displaced persons, including Jewih survivors of the Holocaust. With the horrifying stories of NAZI brutality and the Hoocaust emerged, Cananad becamemuch more receptive to the plight of refugees. In adiition, a growing economy created a demand for peope to fill jobs. Canada admitted hundreds of thousands of the displaced persons. There was no religous tests, so many Jews were among the new immigrants. The Canadin Government not only permitted immigrantions, nbut helped financetheir travel. And Canada began to play an active role in the new United Nations refugee organization.
The primary World War fighting in Asia occurred in China. The primary Chimnese contribution to the war effort was occupying most of the Japanese Army throughout the War. The Chinese paid a terribklr poroce, bith the milkitary and cibvilans. The Japanese exhibited the same inrestrained brutality as the NAZIs in Europe. Millkiomns of Chinese fled the Japanese occupied areas to the areas held by bythe Nationalist Government. As the War cointinued , and the natiioanlists lost moreband niore agricultural areas, feeding the mnountying tide of refugees became an ibcreasing problem. Abd there was notb way of getting food into the country nbecause the bJapanese hekd the ports. Fighting also occurred in Southeast Asia, but the viviliam population in Burma and the Government in Thailand was at forst facoranle to the Japamese. And after the first 6 months of theWar, figting was largeky confined to the Burmese-Indian border area until the final months of the War. There was as a result no significant refugee movement. After the War there was a problem transporting Japoanese POs back to the Home Islands.
The template for Japan's occupation policies were established by the May Incident (May 30, 1925), two decades before Japan invaded China. Japanese factory guards shot and killed workers. he Japanese used this incident to justified increased troop depoloyments. The Four Alls concept was conceived as a way of dealing with the Chinese. Brutality was a policy conceived by Japanese military ommanders to force thevhinese into compliance with Japanese rule. It has worked in Taiwan, Korea, and Manchuko. The Japanese in the process of invading China committed war crimes and atrocities on an unpresidented level against the Chinese civilian population. The most savage of these explosions of barbarity was the Rape of Nanking, after the fall of the capital Nanking. Here European diplomats and missionaries witnessed the brutality of the Japanese. It should be noted that these attrocities were not inherent in the Japanese character. The Japanese conduct and treatment of both prisionors and civilians during the Russo-Japanese War and World War I had been correct and in accordance with accepted international standards. The Japanese military invading China behaved very differently. The result was a huge refugee problem as the Chinese fleed Japanese occupied area. Not only were th Nationalist faced with huge waves of desperte period, but the Japanese seizure of gricultural areas meant lkess and less food was available to feed th refugees.
Some European refugees found safety in India. The Indian Government establoshed an organisation at the request of the British Government to care for civilian refugees from countries occupied by NAZI and Soviet agression. The countries included Poland, the Baltic States, Greece, Malta and other countries. At the time, the Soviet Union was a NAZI ally.
The British did not want to care for these people in Britain itself out of security reasons. The numbers were not huge because it was so difficult to escape from these countries, but they were substantial. There are also reports to refugees from Yugoslvia, French, colonies, and British subjects from all over Middle East and Singapore. Camps were opened in India and staffs recruited to care for thousands of evacuees. As the war progressed, the European evacuees were joined by refugees from Asia fleeing the Japanese, including Burma, Malaya, Hong Kong and elsewhere. The camps continued to operate for some time after the War. Some of the camps were used by civilian internees from other Asian countries until they could get home. The Indian DP camps were not finally closed until 1950.
The Japanese did not attempt to colonize most of the areas they conquerd during the War nor were there Japanese ppulations in those countries. There were exceptions, including Taiwan, the Marians (especially Saian), Korea, Manchuria, and Saklin. These Jpanese in areas occupied by the Allies were repatriated along with the Japanese military. We are less sure about the fate of civilians in areas occupied by the Soviets. After the War the issue of Japanese orphans arose. These were Japanese children left behind and children of local women fathered by Japanese soldiers, both in consenting circumsances and rape. Unlike the Germans, the Japanese did not bring large numbers of slave labor from the occupied countries into the Home Islands. The only exception was Koreans drafted for labor service.
World War II created the greatest refugee crisis in European history. It began 6 years before the War with Hitler's appoitment as Chancellor (1933). Large numbers of Jews fearing the worse fled Germany. As the ininital ant-emeric measures were not as bad as anticipated, this flow slowed for a while. When the NZIs began arresting anti-NAZIs, Communists, and critics, there was also a flow of political refugees. Jewish refugees increased again after the imposition of the Nuremberg Race Law (1935) and Kristallnacht (1938). Until Kristallnacht, NAZI policy was to drive ut the Jews after stealing their property. Beginning with Kristallnacht, leaving Germany became increasingly difficult. At the same time Germany;s aggressive policies set in motion refugee flows in other countries, bginning with Austria and Czechoslovakia. And then with war and occupation not only we see millions of refugees fleeing repression, front line combat and bombing, cities being evacuated, ethnics cleansings, roundups, mass murder, and workers drawn or forced into the Reich to solve the labor shortage as workers were conscripted for the front. Millions more desceded into poverty and want because of the War. Others found themselves homeless because of the war. The War sent Europe in motion. People were in motion throughout the War. People had tpo leave burned out towns. Parents sought safety for their children. For some there wre welfare agencies set up to help. For others they were in their own, especually Jews and Slavs in the occupied East. Here the killing was a najor German war goal. And as the War went against Germany, the Germans themselves became refugees. And at the end of the War millions of released POWs and foced laborers added to the refugee flow and the great mass of hungry people wandering the continent. One estimate suggests that a total of about 60 million Europeans became refugees during the World War II era. And even 5 years after the War there were more than a million people who were still in DP camps.
The Pavific War was foughtbin Oceanis. Much of this was comomial possessions of the European powers. Some of the popukatiin looked omthe Japanese as librators aswas thevcase in Burma., This maean that bthere was no real refugee problem. The populationm im thebDuth East Indies cooprated vwith rhe Japanese. The Filipinis were genbrerallyn loyal to the Americans, bit there wannot place to flee to. The Natives in New Guinea vame to hate the Japanesebecause they abuseed their women amnd stole their. Thery fled into the bhingle. On the small island occupied ny the Kapamese there was no place for theb ialand population to seek refuge.
Newron, Ronald C. "Indifferentb Sanctuary: German speaking refugees and exiles in Argentina, 1933-1945," Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs Vol. 24, No. 4 (November 1982), pp. 395-420.
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