** NAZI government - NAZI economics labor

NAZI Germany: Economy--Labor (1933-45)

NAZI World war II economy
Figure 1.--

At the time Hitler seized power, German had a florishing and highly politicized trade union movement. The NAZIs for the most part hade little influence in the trde unions. The unions were mostly associated with the Socialists and Communists. This was an intolerable situation for Hitler as he began to consolidate power. He wanted worker support, but he did not want them to remain annterest able to resist the NAZI Party and his policies. As a result, the trade unions were seen as a challenge that had to be dealt with. As a result, he moved on the trade unions only one day after allowing them to celebrate Labor Day for the first time (May 1, 1933). The police and SA units the next day seized the offices of the trade unins and arrested trade union leaders (May 2). This was a dangerous step, the fearsome NAZI police sate was not yet well established. An organized labor response could have threatened the regime. But the earlier arrest of Communist Party leaders and the new arrest of the unionleaders in effect decapitated potential resisance. Hitler then proceeded to win over German workers. He would never fully win them over entirely, but he did achieve considerable and any rcalcitrant idvuduals would be dealt wth by the police state he was consructed. Hitler announced with considerable fanfare that a new Deutsche Arbeitsfron (German Labor Feront--DAF) led by Robert Ley, would combine and replace the former trade unions. The DAF would from now on look after German worker and their families. The DAF like all NAZI organisation was cloaked in patriotism. It was now a national entity. Ley's job was to convince workers that they were better under the care of the NAZI Party and the DAF. This was not an easy task. Hitler's primary objective from the day he became chancellor was to remilarize Germany. This was hugely expensive and could only be done through massive borrowing. Thus wages had to be held down to limit cots. Other ways had to be found to placate the workers. He needed their support not only politicall, but to fight his wars. Attempting to gain it by brutaling them would have been counter productive. Arresting a few leaders was one thing, mass arrests was quite another. he ininital NAZI effort and a very imprtant one was to reduce unemployment. Other methods including programs employing appeals to patriotism, providing recreation, housing, social services, price controls, and even the chance to own a car. Some of this was real. Part of it ws largely propaganda. In the end, the workers and even more so their sons would come over to the NAZIs and ultimately become grist for Hitler's military machine.

Labor Day (May 1, 1933)

The Labor Movement throughout Europe and America pursued as one of their major demands, a public holiday honoring lanor. And they coallesed around May Day--May 1. Thre was considerable resiatance to this demand. Hitler decided to give German workers what they wanted--a May Day holiday. It was the perfect propaganda step. He proclaimed a national May Day holiday. And he arranged a kind of celebration that had never been seen n Germany before and the NAZIs were so good at. The NAZIs flew the trade union leaders to Berlin from all over Germany. Air travel ws something very new. Most had never been a plane before. Joseph Goebbels who was Gauleiter of Berlin and fresh from orchestrating the NAZI book burning extravaganza orcestrated the ceremonies. Hitler told the workers' delegates: "You will see how untrue and unjust is the statement that the revolution is directed against the German workers." Later that same day day Hitler addressed a meeting of some 100,000 workers, telling them that "reestablishing social peace in the world of labour" would soon begin. [Shirer, p. 252.] None of the labor leaders or union members had even the vaguest idea about what was coming.

Supression of the Free Trade Union Movement (May 2, 1933)

Hitler the very next day after his jubilent May Day celebration struk (May 2). The police and Sturm Abteilung (SA) teams arrested the labor leaders and seized the offices, records, and assetts of the trade unions. The unions were ordered disolved. In one fell swoop Hitler decapitted the free trade unions--among the strongest in Europe. Many of the union leaders were sent to the new Cachau concentration camp--the template for the vast NAZI concentration camp thatwas to come. Here NAZI oppononents could be dealt with without any consideration of law. The 169 free trade unions ceased to exist.

German Labor Front (DAF)

The NAZIs upon seizing power swiftly created the Deutsche Arbeitsfront (German Labor Front, DAF). This essentially replaced free trade unions which had a Socialist/Communist orientation with a labor association controlled by the NAZI Party (May 2, 1933). Hitler ordered the SA to arrest former labor leaders throughout Germany and confiscate the property of the supressed unions. Hitler selected Dr. Robert Ley to organize the new DAF. Ley was both Reichsorganisationsleiter (Reich Organization Leader) and leader of the German Labor Front. There had been NAZI Party cells organized in the unions (National Socialist Factory Cells Organization of NSBO). The key positions in the DAF were filled with these individuals. At a NAZI organized Worker's Congress, Hitler was made the DAF patron (May 10, 1933). He then gave Robert Ley the task of forming the Labour Front (DAF), the only union organization allowed in the Third Reich. Trade union collective bargaining was replaced with the NAZI Leadership Principle (Fuehrerprinzip) by decree (January 1934). Essential the industrialist and other entrepreneur became the leader and the workers were expected to loyally follow rather than make demands. In fact Ley through the DAF implemented a pay freeze (1933). The DAF set wages as well as a system of compulsory deductions (income tax and for the Strength Through Joy program). The DAF issued work-books with details on each worker's employment record. Workers could not obtain jobs without a DAF work book. This made it difficult for Jews and disidents to obtain work. The DAF restricted wages, but sought to develop alternatives to rewarding workers rather than higher wages. The DAF led by Robert Ley was the second largest of the NAZI mass organizations. A major DAF effort was the Strength through Joy Movement.


Strikes were the principal way that workers in free trade unions could vent their anger or pursue their demands. Hitler simply banned strikes. Even before the Depression hit Weimar Germany, strikes became a serious problem. One study estimates that something like 20.3 million working days were lost (1928). And this escated with the Depression. Some 40.0 million working days were lost (1930). With the NAZIS in power, strikes plummeted. There were less than 0.1 million working days lost (1933). Striking worker were subject to arrest. After1933, strikes no longer occurred. The enabling laws passed after the Reichstag Fires destroyed German democracy. One addressed ‘un-German activities’ and strikes were one of te activities identified as un-German. This was defintivly established in the Law Regulating National Labor (the NAZI Charter of Labor) which banned strikes by law.


The single most important matter of interest to workers are their wages. German workers lost their principal bargaining mechanism with the creation of the DAF and banning strikes. Wages became a matter to be negotiated btween employers and he DAF. The workers themselves were left out of the process. It was a one-way negotiation. The employers obviouly were not interested in increasing wages. Buu either was the DAF. The DAF was a labor organization, but it was not chosen by the workers, but imposed on them. THE DAF was a NAZI Party organization and Ley was appointed by Hitler. And Hitler did not want higher wages either. This would only increase the cost of his primary oblective--Remilitarizing Germany. And financing was the primary limit on remilitarization. The DAF imposed a wage freeze (1933). And that freeze was enforced suring the entire 12-year periodof NAZI rule, both before and during the NAZI era. This was the case despite the fact that the cost of living increased, something that was much more difficult to cotrol. Communists and Scocialists both advocated government control of industry, not understanding that negotiating with the governent would be more difficult than negotiating with private owners. One historian insists that the DAF was basiclly 'a gigantic state prison from which workers had no way out'. [Snyder, p. 209.]


NAZI actions against the free trade unions were remarably successful. There was little resistance to the DAF and NAZI labor policies. Germany before Hitler was being disrupted by strikes. Shortly after Hitler seized power and launched the DAF, strikes ceased. The last reported work stoppage was a 17-minute stoppage at Rüsselsheim Opel Works, notably an American subsidiary (June 1936). Some 262 Opel woekers protestedg against a wage cut brought about by raw-material shortages. The leaders were immediately arrested and over 40 men were summarily blacklisted. [Grunberger, p. 257.] This meant that they could no longer find decent paying jobs.


It is true that Hitler put German workers to work. The NAZIs as other European governments in the early 1930s were confronted with the enormous difficulties of the Great Depression, the same Depression that had helped bring them to power. Hitler and Nazi propaganda focused on the fears of the German people. Unemployment reached 6 million people before Hitler and the NAZIs seized control. This was approximately 50 percent of the country's working population. Hitler decreed that all should work in the new Germany. Here he was talking about male Germans. Hitler used their success at putting Germans to work as a major achievement and used it to legitimize the NAZI regime. The primary indicator used by the NAZIs to substantiate their economic achievements was the unemployment rate. It is also true that the real wages (purchasing power) of German workers declined. The Government projects that would have the greaest impact on production and employment was spending related to motor vehicles, transportation infrastructure, and construction. The construction of the Autobahns was the largest single project. Here the NAZI German Labor Service, Reichsarbietsdienst (RAD), played an important role in providing employment. In addition, military conscription siphoned off large numbers of workers from the labor market. There was also a uniformed labor service, some what similar to the American Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC). NAZI economic policy was to combine increases in government investment with increases in private investment, and to manage the ecoonomy to maximize investment and resulting employment increases. Unemployment statistics are the principal evidence often used to make the case that the NAZIs orcestrated an economic miracle. Largely ignored is the fact that during the NAZI era, the share of the national wealth that wento the workers declined substantially. Millions of German workers were now secure in their jobs--at least until the the War began. But the workers share more had jobs, the share of all German workers in the national income fell from 57 percent before the NAZIs (1932) to 54 percent in the suposeldy prosperos time before the War (1938). The income reorted by industry and business rose rose from 18 percent to 27 percent.

Price Controls


Housing as one historian explains it was at the heart of Volksgemeinschaft (national community) that the NAZIs aspired to create. Popular items like the Volksempfaenger (Peopple's Radio) and Volkswagen (People's Car) were popular, but discretionary items. Housing was a necesity. The poor state of worker housing and the rise of the Socilaist (SDP) as Germany's major party meant that the issue began to become highly politicized. German workers were not well-housed before World War I. American history text books give students the misleading idea that American workers lived in crowded hovels. Hosing did not meet 21st century standards, but American workers were not only the best fed and clothed workers in the world, but they were the best housed. German workers endured houseing that was far below American standards. An increasingly severe housing shortage developed during the inter-War era. German politicans claimed that there was a housing shortage of 1-2 million apartment units. This shortage developed because of expanding regulation promulgated by the SDP after World War I--most importantly rent control regulation. This began in a major way with the Hyper Inflation (1922-23) and was intended to prevet mass evictions. Rent control became an important element of the SDP Weimar welfare state. Rents were set at pre-War levels and given the substantial price increases during and after the War, constructin of new units ceased. The rent controls meant that buiding apartments was a money losing proposition. Weimar authorities attempted to subsidize consruction, but even with the subsidies, builders could not produce units that workers could afford. And many workers who had apartments were living in crowded, sub-standard units. The Depression made a bad system worse. Unemployed workers could not even afford rent-controlled rents. And the Government with its revenue falling could not aford to continue massive subsidies for new construction. There are reports of fmilies living in attics and basements and squarter camps. There were no German Oakies--German workers did not have cars or California where they could look for jobs. This was the sitution when Hitler and the NAZIs seized power. Hitler ended direct subsidies for hosing. Hitler's priority for available funds was remilitarization, not building apartments. The housing crisis could not be ignored, although the deflation that came with the Depression helped somewhat. NAZI housing policy was basically to shift back to the private sector. The NAZIs did come up with an ideological program, although it was not well funded. It was a settlement effort began before Hitler seized power. It was an effort at population resistribution to small towns. Names like Hitlerburg and Göringen were invisioned. And the program included a back to the land narative. Not only was little money allocated, but few people we intersted in moving to areas with shoddy construction and few ammenities. The DAF came up wih its own housing program -- Volkswohnungen. The units projected were so small, however, that Goebbels refused to use then in his propaganda. The NAZI Volksgemeinschaft efforts like the housing efforts faced a major problem. The wages of German workers men that they could not afford even subsidized efforts. The workers' living standards coul only be improved by decent wages. And this was something Hitler adametly refused to address as increasing wages would have meant reducing the funds allocated for rearmament. And higher wages would have increased the cost of the weapons and equipment that needed to be purcased. [Tootze, pp. 157-161.] NAZI propaganda trumpeted the small-scale projects launched, but like the Volkswagen, vey few German workers actually got new apartments or homes.

Recreation: Strength through Joy

Kraft durch Freude (KdF) meant literally "Strength Through Joy". KdF was NAZI Germany's large state-controlled leisure organization. It was administered by the German Labour Front (Deutsche Arbeiterfront - DAF). Hitler had on the day he announced making May Day a state holiday, also announced the closure of all independent trade unions. Instead he established the DAF to being workers under NAZI control. Hitler placed Robert Ley in charge of the DAF. Ley worked with the SA and SS to arrest German labor leaders and seize the offices of the now banned trade unions. At the time German workers strongly supported the Communists and Socialists. The DAF launced a range of programs to win over German workers. It became the world's largest tourism operator, providing low-cost holidays for workers. The idea was to give workers a middle-class life style. The KDF was influenced by the Italian Fascist organization Dopolavoro (After Work). The KdF because of mandatory contribution from workers developed in one of the most important NAZI institutions. German workers could take cruises to Norway or the Mediterranean and other exciting locations at very little cost. We believe something like 80 reichsmarks. The program proved emensely popular. Needless to say that this was a fantastic propaganda achievement, helping to build NAZI popularity with German workers. As early as 1934, only one year after the NAZIs seized power, 2.3 million workers and their family took KdF holidays. The KdF had expanded this to 10.3 million. Hopeing to earn some foreign exchange, the NAZIs attempted to attract foreign customers. A smiling Josef Goebels appeared on their advertising, welcoming foreigners to Germany. I'm not sure about the effectiveness of the campaign. After the invaion of Poland (September 1939) the War intervened. The British Royal Navy instituted a naval blockade of Germamy, making KDF cruises impossible. The KdF had 7,000 paid employees and 135,000 voluntary workers. The organization had units involved in sport, education, and tourism. KDF had representatives in every German factory. Every 20 workers were reresented by a Warden. I think the workers were appointed rather than elected, but I am not sure about this. Perhaps the most famous KdF projects was the Volkwagen--the Peoples Car. It was designed to be a car that the average German worker could afford. The project never came to much, Hitler decided to launch Word War II before the factory could begin to churn out many cars and was converted to war work. It was onlybafter the War, during the allied ocupation that VW was launched, interestingly by a British soldiier-manager working with the occupation authorities.


One of the more interesting DAF projects with implications for both the War and massive corruption was the story of the Volkswagen--the People's Car. Hitler had a love affair with the car. That can be easily see in the huge Mercedeses in which Hitler loved to be seen and photographed. It was also why Hitler was enamored with the Autobahn project. And one reason that he was so impressed with America. And it was more than an enfatuation. He understood the potential military implications of both the industry that produced cars and the motor vehicles themselves. Germany had fundamental military weaknesses. And there were not just the lack of raw materials. German industry was a fraction of the size of that of the United States which is one reason why keeping America out of the coming war as long as possible was a major objective. And not only did the United States have a larger industrial base, but the american automobile industry was not only larger than the German car indusyry, but larger than that of all foreign ndustries combined. German workers used bicyles and not all even had bikes. While American workers even during the Depression had cars. Only 2 out of every 100 Germans had a car, compared to 20 out of 100 Americans. As Will Rogers quipped, 'America was the first country to go to the poor house in the autmobile.' This was something Hitler after seizing power sought to address. He would fail and despite the much ballyhooded Wehrmact, the Germans would launch World War II dependent on horses as draft animals. But it was not for lack of effort. Hitler approached leading German car manufacturers about producing a mass produced car for the people. At the time, the German autmobile industry ws akind of craft industry, producing superbly engineered high end cars for the well-to-do. He wanted a car that could be sold for about $400 which is what American companies were doing. German companies told him that it could not be done. So Hitler decided that the NAZI state needed to go in the auomobile industry. [Shirer, pp. 330-31.] Hitler announced his plans to produce a 'People's Car' (Volkswagen) and even came up with a design--the beetle car (1935). He was impressed with Ferdinand Porsche who was renounded for racing cars. Hitler gave him his drawings. And Porsche came up with a prototype (1937). [Taylor, p. 297.] Hitler was having increasing problems financing his remilitarization effort so did not want to fund the Vollswaggen project. Instead he came up with the idea of German workers funding it. It would be part of the DAF Strength Through Joy scheme. DAF Leader Ley was ordered to come up with 50 million marks. Ley's answer was an advertising campign to convince German workers to back the effort. Ley announced to his members, "A Volkswagen for every German - let that be our aim. That is what we want to achieve." (August 1938) Workers could hardly believe it. Ley provided details onjust how ordinary workers actually get a a new car. "I herewith proclaim the conditions under which every working person, can acquire an automobile. (i) Each German, without distinction of class, profession, or property can become the purchaser of a Volkswagen. (ii) The minimum weekly payment, insurance included, will be 5 marks. Regular payment of this amount will guarantee, after a period which is yet to be determined, the acquisition of a Volkswagen. The precise period will be determined upon the beginning of production." [Ley, 1938.] The system he came up with nothing like the American system, a small down payment and immediate delivery. Germans would not get their car until they paid in full, which would men several year of payment. A noted historian writes, "Dr Ley's ingenious plan was that the workers themselves should furnish the capital by means of what became known as a 'pay-before-you-get-it' installment plan - five marks a week, or if a worker thought he could afford it, ten or fifteen marks a week. When 750 marks had been paid in, the buyer received an order number entitling him to a car as it could be turned out." [Shirer, p. 332.] Amazingly, such was the desire to own a car that Ley's scheme actually worked--at least for the DAF. Not a single worker ctually got his car. The DAF launched a massive advertising campaign to persuade its members to put aside part of their wages to save up for a car in the future. Their slogan was 'a car for everyone'. The whole campaign was a tremendous success. Some 330,000 workers signed up to buy the Volkswagen car. Porsche built a huge factory at Fallersleben. [Taylor and Shaw, p. 297.] A German observer writes, "One German reported: "For a large number of Germans, the announcement of the People's Car is a great and happy surprise.... For a long time the car was a main topic of conversation in all sections of the population in Germany. All other pressing problems, whether of domestic or foreign policy, were pushed into the background for a while. The grey German everyday sank beneath notice under the impression of this music of the future. Wherever the test models of the new Strength-Through-Joy construction are seen in Germany, crowds gather around them. The politician who promises a car for everyone is the man of the masses if the masses believe his promises. And as far as the Strength-Through-Joy car is concerned, the German people do believe in Hitler's promises." [Anonamous] A few Voswagens were actually produced in the factory even before it was finished. The first completed Volkswagen cars which rolled off the assembly line were exhibited in Munich and Vienna just after Hitler's great victory over the Sudetenland (October 1938). [Grunberger, p. 48.] Hitler got one of them, presented at the International Motor Show in Berlin (February 1939). It was of course not a car he would hae ever been seen it. So he gave it to Eva Braun for her birthday. All this was accompanied with great publicity. Germans never saw the car on the streets, but it was widely portrayed in newsreels, newspapers, and magazines. Germans began calling it the 'bettle'. [Evans, p. 327.] Soon after production began. production at Fallersleben stopped. As Hitler preared for war, production shifted to military vehicles. Not a single worker of the 330,000 workers who had paid into the DAF scheme got their car. Instead the half-finished factory Volkwagen factory was rettoled for military production. [Tootze, p. 156.] They produced the Kübelwagen and the amphibious Schwimmwagen. Large numbers of slave laborers from the Arbeitsdorf Camp worked at the factory. After theWar, the Volkwagen Company admitted that some 15,000 concentration camp slaves were employed at the factory during the War. German historians believe that some 80 percent of Volkswagen's wartime workforce came from concentration camps. [New York Times]


The NAZI regime is notorius for the corruption that was manifest troughout the system. The same was true of the Communist Union. Corruption seems to be endemic to all to totalitarian states. It has to do with abandoment of the rule of law. The DAF may have been the most corrupt of all the NAZI bodies. Here the caracter of DAF leader, robert Ley, was a factor. In addition the size of the DAF and the money pasing through its coffers are the primary factors leading to the widespread corruption. One historian focusing on the NAZIs believes that the DAF 'the most corrupt of all the major institutions of the Third Reich.' [Grunberger, pp. 132-133.] The best known NAZI charity was the Winter Relief, a charity effort initiated by Chancellor Bruning (1931). Hitler claimed it as his own after becoming Chancellor and greatly expanded the collection effort. Countless Hitler Youth members were put to work throughout Germany collecting coins in unbiquitous cans--the becameknown s the can rattlers. The DAF played a major role in collecting donations from its members. Vast sums were collected. And a substantial portio of the collections came from DAF members. German newspapers reported more than a hundred cases of misappropriation of funds (early-1935). The people involved were officials of the Winter Relief, meaning DAF empoyees. Once it was realized that the DAF, a NAZI body, was involved in the scandal, the press reports suddenly ceased. But rumours and speculations were rife. The DAF decided to discontinue potentilly volitile door-to-door collections and possible refusal and instead begin automatic deductions from wages. [Shirer, p. 331.] Notably while huge publicity was given to the collection effort. Very little information exists on the charitable assstance actually delivered to he needy.

Socialist Twins

Modern political discourse tends to differentate betweem Communism and Fascism as polar opposites. And the 'Socialist' and 'Worker's' in the National Socialist German Worker's Party was simply window dressing. In fact The NAZIs and Communists despite apocolyptic, life and death struggle on the Eastern Front that dominated World War II, the two totalitarian dictatorships were virtual twins. Both were ruthless dictatorships who trampeled on indivual human rights, seized absolute control of the media, and created what are today as the iconic police states of all time--although the modrn Socialist dominated mrdia and academia almost always refer to the NAZIs and and not the Communists. The NAZIS and Soviets established the same institutions and pursued the same methods like unrestrained secret police, perversion of the justice system, end of the rul of law, brutality, torture, murder, perversion of the arts, atheism, massive militaries, slave labor, concentration camps, and supression of neighboring countries, and national groups. The Soviets pursued Russian imperialism, the NAZIs Grman imperialism. And the results were the same -- state murder on an unbeleveable scale. There were some differences, but both were forms of totalarianism which were much more alike than different. Both were fundamental diversions from the arc of Western Civilizationn toward individual freedom. This was the fundamental, destinctive characteristic of Western Civilization since the Greeks invented freedom at Thermopylae. And both Communists and Fascists adopted Socialist economic systems. The Communists seized private property. The Fascists allowed private ownership, but took effective control of industry. Mussolini in Italy alled it the Corporate State. Hitler called it National Socialism. The NAZI Government did seize important elemennts of the economy. This was done by Himmler's SS or Göring's giant conglomerate, the Reichswerke. But for the most part the NAZIs let industry remain in private hands while controling corporate activity. The mechanism for control was Göring Four Year Plan. Hitler and the NAZIs are often portrayed as virulent anti-Communists. They were certainly anti-Soviet. Notice that NAZI propganda commonlu used 'Bolshevik' rather than 'Communist'. NAZI propaganda emphasized its Socialist foundation and devition to the wirking man. DAF Leader Ley would claim that Germany was the first country in Europe to overcome the class struggle. [Ley, 1933.] NAZI propaganda propegated by Goebbels Propaganda Ministry sounded very similar to Soviet propaganda. Pne historian writes, "All the propagandists in the Third Reich from Hitler on down were accustomed to rant in their public speeches against the bourgeois and the capitalist and proclaim their solidarity with the worker. But... the official statistics ... revealed that the much maligned capitalists, not the workers, benefited most from Nazi policies." [Shirer, p. 329.] Once Hiter and Stalin launched the War, NAZI and Soviet propaganda focused only 'capitalist plutocrats', with Chanberlain, Churchill, and Roosevelt dressed like Monopoly figures being common targets. The only real difference was the racism woven into NAZI propaganda. After launching the Barbarossa invasion of the Soviet Union, the targets incrasingly became Salin and the Bolsheviks with images of Asiantic sub-humans. At the end of the War after Germans began surrendeing en masse to the Western Allies, Goebbels began having seconds thouhts about his propaganda campaign which he blamed on others. He writes in his diary, :I shall very quickly purge the Press section of refractory and defeatist elements and can now carry on propaganda against the West which will be in no way inferior to that against the East. Anti-Anglo-Ameican propaganda is now the order of the day. Only if we demonstrate to our people that Anglo-American intentions towards them are no different from those of the Bolshevists will they adopt a different attitude toward our eneny in the West." [Goebbels, March 30, 1945, p. 343.]



Anonamous. Report prepared by am activist for the banned Social Democrat Party (April 1939).

Evans, Richard. The Third Reich in Power (2005).

Goebbels, Josef. Hugh Trevor-Roper, ed and intro. . Final Entries 1945: The Diaries of Joseph Goebbels (Avon: New York, 1978), 453p.

Grunberger, Richard. A Social History of the Third Reich (1971).

Ley, Robert. Speech in Berlin (November 1, 1933).

Ley, Robert. DAF statement (August 2, 1938).

Shirer, William L. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (1959).

Snyder, Louis L. Encyclopedia of the Third Reich (1998).

Tayloer, James and Warren Shaw. Dictionary of the Third Reich (1987).

Tooze, Adam. The Wages of Destruction: The Making and Breaking of th Nazi Economy (Penguin Group: New York, 2007), 800p.

The New York Times (June 13, 1998).


Navigate CIH World War II Section:
[Return to Main NAZI economy page]
[Return to Main World War II national economy page]
[Return to Main Weimar Republic page]
[Return to Main NAZI seizure of power page]
[Return to Main NAZI page]
[Return to Main World War II page]
[Return to Main German economic history page]
[Return to Main German economy page]
[Biographies] [Campaigns] [Children] [Countries] [Deciding factors] [Diplomacy] [Geo-political crisis] [Economics] [Home front] [Intelligence]
[Resistance] [Race] [Refugees] [Technology]
[Bibliographies] [Contributions] [FAQs] [Images] [Links] [Registration] [Tools]
[Return to Main World War II page]
[Return to Main war essay page]

Created: 1:42 PM 3/16/2017
Last updated: 4:20 AM 3/20/2017