** British Isles royalty -- chronological list

European Royalty: British Isles -- Chronological List

England / Britain has one of the lonest monarchial lines in Europe. The current British crown combines the Scottish and English monarchies and includes Wales and Ulster by Conquest, the United Kingdom. The English crown combined with the Scottish crown uin a personal union nder the Stuart king James I. With the Act of Union Britain Enfland and Scotland formally becme one country under Queen Anne. The English/British crown has ruled in a steady line broken only by the Norman conquest, Cromwell's Commonwealth, and the Glorious Revolution. A complete list of ruling monarch streaches more than a millenium. British Royal families have always influenced fashion, but primarily adult fashion. Until the late 18th century there were no special styles for children, thus there were no fashions to influence. After differentiated styles for children developed, the fashions for the royal children were of considerable interest to the public. Queen Victoria and her children and grand children were closely followed by the British public. The young Queen children were dressed in a variety of styles, but the two most common were sailor suits and kilts. (I'm not sure who was responsible here. Was it all the young Queen's doing? Did her staff make important suggestions? Did Albert play a role? Certainly the wearing of kilts made an important political starement.) These styles contuinued through the reign of Queen Elizabeth II who often dressed Prince Charles in kilts. Notably Diana does not seem to have chosen kilts for Prince William and Harry, although they did wear them on a few formal occasions as younger boys. Prince William also wore a clasic sailor suit and hat for his uncle's wedding. The following list describes what we know about the British royal line. We give special attention to the how the royal princes and how they were dressed, although such information is not always available. This list is a chronological list of maonarchs by dynasty which makes the sucession a little clearer than our alphabetical listing. Some HBC readers may, however, prefer to view an alphabetical list that is less complete. It lists only the more modern monarchs, but lists the current princes.

Celtic British Chiefs

There was no centralized political entity in Briton before the Roman invasion. England was inhabited by a number of Celtic tribes. There was a general cultural similarity, but the tribes often wared with each other abd could not unite in the face of the Roman invasion. As the ancient Britons were a pre-literate peoole, our understanding of them is limited. Almost all of what we know outsude of archeological work comes from the Romans. Very little information is known about individual British leaders at this time. They would probably more accurately be called tribal chiefs than kings. One of the best known is Boudica (Boudicca), the fabeled warrior queen.a Boudica was a leader of the Iceni people of Norfolk (Eastern England). She led an uprising of the Celtic tribes against the occupying Romans. The united the Britons almost suceeded in driving the Romans out of Briton. The Roman commander Suetonius with a small force managed to defeat a huge army of Britons in the in the Battle of Watling (61 AD). It was the last important effort of the Celts to resist the Romans.

Roman Era

During the Roman era there was a centralized regime in England for the first time. The Romans occupied the entire island, except the far north (modern Scotalnd. The Romans decided it was not worth the effort required to conquer the north and instead built Hadrian's Wall to keep the northern tribes out of their domaine. The monarch of course was the reining Roman empire who appointed govenors and military officals to govern Britain. Many of modern Briton's major cities began as Roman military outposts. The Romans made no effort to build a local militia or military force outside of the Roman Legion. Just the opposite, Roman authorities pacified and demilitarized the Britons. So when the Legions departed, the Romanised celts and rural celtic tribes were defenseless against the barbarians from the north, the Irish from the west and the Germanic tribes from the east.

Romanized Celts: Arthurian Legend

The stuggle of the Romanized Celts and Germanic tribes appears to to be the genesis of the Arthurian legend. Arthur as far as we know was a legendary figure and not a known historical figure, although it is quite possible that the legend may be based on a particularly successful British king or more probably a warlord. Arthur came to symbolize the struggle of the Romanized Britons against the invading Anglo-Saxons as well as the barbarian invaders from west and north like the Picts. Some credence is given to Arthur as an ctual historical figure because a number of actual battles are known. Arthur may have been the British leader at Badon, where their victory brought a temporary respite and generation of peace. The literary King Arthur as he is best knon today appears in the Norman era. Warrior king Edward I (Longshanks) desired to promote the legend and actually had a Roundtable created. It hangs today in Winchester Cathedral. Chretien de Troyes wrote about King Arthur abnd his knights in armourand on horsebac (about 1170). It is a romantic account about Camelot rich in chivalry about a word that never was. Chretien de Troyes created Camelot, Lancelot, and the Holy Grail. Certainly he was influenced by legendary tales circulating at the time, but the context of the epic struggle of Britons against Anglo-Saxons was lost in his literary account.

Anglo-Saxon Monarchs

The Anglo-Saxon tribes invaded Britain and sent up number of competing kingdoms based on tribal alegiance. They made war on the Romanized Celtic Britons. The legend of King Arthur is based on the efforts of the Britins to resist the Anglo-Saxons. It was a war of extermination. The leading warlord founded several different tribally based kingdoms. The Anglo-Saxons drove the Britons to the remote west where they became known as the Welsh ("forigners"). The Anglo-Saxon kingdoms dominated modern England for four centuries. The term England is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes participating in the invasion of Britain. We do know the names of many of the Anglo-Saxon monarchs, although often not very much about them. The Anglo-Saxon kingdoms were almost all destroyed by Viking invaders known as Danes at the time. Only one of the Anglo Saxon kingdoms, Wessex under Alfred managed to resist the Danes. Thus Wessex served as the basis for the English kingdom. Alfred who is the only English king with the title of Great can also be considered the first actual English king. Alfred managed to restore Anglo-Saxon power, but he could not defeat the Danes. A compromised was reached. The Danes were allowed to settle in the area to the north and east of a line between London and Chester. This was the old Roman Watling Street. The area conceded became known as the Danelaw. The Danes in the Danelaw continued to compete for power. An iladvised military adventure by King Aethelred the Unready resulted in his exile and control by the Dane Canute. The last Anglo-Saxon king was Harold who in fact was more of a Viking himself. Harold was defeated by Duke William of Normandy at Hastings (1066), ending Anglo-Saxon rule in fact as well as in name.

Norman (1066-1154)

The Normans as their name suggests were descended from the Norsemen (northern men) or Scandinavian Vikings raiders who terrorized Christian Europe for several centuries. Just as the Danes were grnted land in England, Rollo, a Norwegian Viking, was granted lands in northern France. King Charles the Simple saw this as a way of pacifying the Vikings. The Normans were vassals of the French in Monarchy, but in fact the dukes of Normandy for a time was more powerful than the French monarchy. Rollo converted to Christianity and took the name Robert. The Norman connection with England is complicated. The connection was made by Rollo�s great-granddaughter--Emma of Normandy. Edward the Confessor proved to be a desengaged monarch. Edward before becoming king spent much time in exile in Normandy. His relations there with Duke William is not well understood. Duke William's father was the son of Duke Robert (the Devil), but he was illegitimate. His mother was a commoner. One thing is known with certainty about Edward's time in Normandy, Duke William expected Edward to name him as his heir and he had a distant claim because Queen Emma (now the Queen Mother Emma) was William's great aunt. Harold Godwinson, Earl of Wessex, also spent time in Normandy after being ship wrecked. Again the historical record is unclear, but William claims that Harold pledged his alegisnce. Duke William was thus enraged when after Edward's death that Harold seized the crown. He was the strongest force in the country and his claim was confirmed by the Witan, the Anglo-Saxona council of wise men. William thus ivaded England and defeted Harold's army at Hastings (1066). He was crowned king of England in Westminster Abbey on Christmas Day. Willian was suceeded by his son William II, who never married. He was known as Rufus because of his ruddy complexion or red hair. He was an imposing leader, but unpopular. He died in the New Forest as a result of poorly understood circumstances. Many historians believe his brother Henry was responsible. Henry I also proved to be a strong ruler. He began the process of making the defeated Saxons loyal subjects of the monarchy. His son drowned in the Channel. At the time, the French-speaking Norman kings often took a greater interest in Normandy than England and traveled back and forth. A bloody civil war followed between the cousins Stephen and Matilda with clains to the crown. Matilda was eventually defeated. The death of Stephen�s son ended the Norman dynasty.

Plantaganet (1154-1399)

The Plantagenets were also known as the Angevian dynasty. They were one of England's major medieval dynasties, reigning during the late medieval period. The dynasty was founded in the 10th century by the counts of Anjou in France. Anjou was a rich province and played an important eole in medieval European politics. Geoffrey Plantagenent conquered Normandy (1144). His son became king of England as Henry II. He founded the English Plantagenent dynasty. Count Faulk V of Anjou became King of Jerusalem during the crusades. A second Angevian dynasty became the monarchial line in Naples. Some of England's best known medieval kings were Plantagenets. Henry II was a particularly important king. Richard and Jojn were less important, but very well known. Richard was known as Richard the Lion Heart and played a major role in the Crusades. John of course is known as the king that was forced to sign the Magna Carta. The last of the English line was Richard II.

Lancasterian (1399-1461)

Henry IV (1399-1413)

King Henry IV (1367-1413) was the son of John of Gaunt He opposed Richard II and served as ine of the lords appellant that ruled England for a year (1387). He accused the Duke of Norfolk of treason against Richard and was banished for 6 years. Richard's rule had been unpopular. Henry returned from exile and claimed the throne and thus founded the Lascastrian or Plantagenent dynasty (1399). He proceeded to put down rebellions by Richar's adherents, the Scotts, Welsh, and the Percies. Henry insisted on exerting the perogatives of the Crown over Parliament. Upon Henry's death (1413), however, he left the Crown with enormous debts. This complicated the reign of his son Henry V. As with many English monarchs, the popular image of Henry has in large meaure been influenced by The Shakespeare plays. The Bard in fact left two plays about Henry IV, "Henry IB Part I" and "Henry IV Part II".

Henry V (1413-22)

Henry V was one of the great English warrior kings. He began his military campaigns when he was only 14 years old by engaging the Welsh comanded by Owen ap Glendower. He comanded his father's (Henry IV) forces in the battle of Shrewsbury when he was only 16 years old. After succeeding his father, he supressed the Lollard uprising and an attempt to assasinate him by a group of nobles loyal to Richard II. Henry is best known for his adventures in France. He attempted to marry the Frnch Princess Catherine in 1415 and insisted on the former Plantagenet provinces of Normandy and Anjou as a dowry. Frenck king Charles VI rejected the war. Henry declared war, in fact a continuation of the Hundred Years' War. The war for Henry offered two prospects. Henry could gain land tha had ben lost to the French. It also helped to deflect his cousins' royal ambitions. Henry achieved one of the great English victories over the French at Agincourt (October 1415). Henry's small English army defeated and killed a vastly superior French force. The cream of the French airistocracy was killed at Agincourt, many after the battle. Henry's son wjho suceeded him was only 1 year old when his father died. Henry was the subject of one of Shakespeare's historical plays--Henry V.

Henry VI (1422-61)

Henry VI was the Lancastrian king and the son of the great warrior king Henry V (whose victory at Agincourt was to be the subject of a later Shakespeare play) came to the throne as a child of only 9 months. He was born in 1421 and died in 1471. According to Shakespeare in Part III of "Henry VI", he was murdered in the Tower of London (where he was imprisoned) by the Duke of Gloucester, who became Richard III. But the murder may be fictional because the circumstances of Henry VI's death remain mysterious to historians. Henry VI had a long reign, but it was interrupted by civil war (the Wars of the Roses). He was actually on the throne from 1422-61, when he was deposed and replaced by Edward IV; but he briefly regained his throne and reigned again between 1470- 71 up until his death. He was then succeeded by his Yorkist rival, Edward IV, once more. Shakespeare's plays, especially "Henry VI, Part 3" dramatize this see-saw between the two warring houses of the Plantagenet family--The Red Rose of Lancaster (with Henry VI as its titular head) and The White Rose of York (with Edward IV as its claimant to the throne). The conflict didn't end until Richard III, Edward IV's brother, had been defeated at Bosworth Field in 1475, at which point the first Tudor king, Henry VII, came to the throne and united the Red and White roses because he had Lancastrian blood on his mother's side and because he married Elizabeth of York, the daughter of Edward IV, and so could claim to have reconciled the long-standing feud by incorporating both hereditary claims in a single person.

York (1461-1485)

Edward IV (1461-83)

Edward was born in 1442 in Rouen, France. He was the last French-born king, but not the last foreign-born king. Future British momarchs were born in the Netherlands and Germany. His father was Richard of York (1411-) and Lady Cicely Neville. He had several illegitimate children as well as 10 children with Elizabeth Woodville, the first commoner to become queen.. He acceded to the throne in 1461. Some reports induicate that he was deposed in 1470-71. We know he died in 1483. Two of the children were Edward V and Richard, Duke of York, the two Little Princes murdered in the Tower. His oldest daughter was married by Henry Tudor after his victory over the Richard and the Yorkists at Bosworth. The victory and the fusing of the Lancaster and York families effectively ended the War of The Roses.

Edward V (1483)

Edward was one of the murdered Little Princes. He was born at the Sanctuary in Westminster Abbey in 1470. He was the son of Edward IV (1442- ) and Elizabeth Woodville (about 1437- ), He became king at age 12 in 1483 upon the death of his father. His uncle Richard became the regeant. He and his younger brother Richard were murdered in the Tower of London a few months after he became king. It is generally assumed that their uncle Richard ordered the murder, although the exact circumstances are unknown. As Richard as regent enginered his seizure of the throne, he is commonly seen as the culprit. The story of Richard III, the Little Princes, and Henry Tudor is addressed in Shakespaere's "Richard III".

Richard III (1483-85)

The murder of the Little Princes did not do Richard much good. Henry Tudor's army at the Battle of Bosworth (1485) defeated the Yorkists and Richard was killed, leaving Henry and the Lancasterians in control of England. Richard is among the most disliked of English kings, in part because of his murder of the "Little Princes" in the Tower of London and in part because of Shakespaere's great play. Shakespere of course had to right the play from a Tudor perspective. The story of Richard III, the Little Princes, and Henry Tudor is addressed in Shakespeare's "Richard III". Popular perceptions of Richard and Henry are very much affected by this play, especially the murder of the Little Princes. Shakespeare of course takes the Tudor line. And very effective propaganda it was. As a result, Richard is one of the most despised of all English monarchs. Shakespere of course would have been taking his life in his hand had he not done so. Most modern historians do believe that the Little Princes were killed on Richard's orders and their remains have been found in the Tower.

King Edward VI
Figure 1.--This portrait of Edward VI was painted by Hans Holbein in 1538. Edward was the only surviving son of King Henry VIII. He is an often forgotten Tudor, coming beteen his father and sister Queen Elizabeth I--two giants. He was very young during his reign. But he was a devout Protestabt and played a critical key role in the triumph of the English Reformation. His fellow Tudors father Henry VIII and sister Elizabeth or more famous, but his shorter reign ws of emense importance.

The Tudors (1485-1603)

It was the Tudors that ushered Britain into the modern age and under the Tudors Britain began its acendancy from a backwatd country on the perifery of Europe to a commanding presence on the Seas. What a cast of characters tghe Tudors were. They still fascinate us today--especially Henry VIII. It was Henry's father who launched the Tudor dynasty and ended the War of the Roses by fuseing the Lanacaterian and Yorkist factions. The first Tudor king, Henry VII, defeated Richard III and the Yorkists after 30 years of war. The Tudors produced two of England's greast monarchs, Henry VIII and Elizabeth I. It was Henry VIII who initiated the Protestant Revolution. It was Elizabeth who with the defeat of the Great Armada began the rise of England as the world's preeminent naval power. Surely the central figure in the Tudor drama was the larger than life Henry VIII--a commanding presence of a man. In many ways though, he was a man caught between two of the most resolute women in history, Catherine of Aragon and Anne Boylen, neither of which he could control. The graetest irony of all was that Henry annulled his marriage to the Queen, risked his throne, and launched the Protestant Revolution (which he did not approve of) in England--to obtain a male heir. Yet it was his daughter Elizabeth who may have been the greatest monarch in English history.

The Stuarts (1603-1714)

The first Stewart king was James VI of Scotland who became James I of England. His son Chales I lost the English Civil War to Oliver Cromwell and was executed. Charles II (1630-85) was the second, but eldest surviving son of Charles I. His father, Charles I, had been executed by Cromwell, but he and his younger brother James had been spirited away to France for saftey. The throne was restored to Charles in 1660 after the death of Cromwell. Charles pursued a moderate policy offering amnesty to all but the regecides who had signed the orders for his father's execution. James II (1633-1701) was the second surviving son of Charles I. His father, Charles I, had been executed by Cromwell, bit he and his elder brother Charles had been spirited away to France for saftey. James inherited the throne from his elder brother, Charles II, in 1685. His brother had maintained a careful policy aimed at passifying Parliament. James ignored his brother's advise and his militant Catholcism cost him the throne Mary II (married to William III) and Anne were the last Stewart monarchs.

The Hanoverians (1714-1901)

With the end of the Stuart dynasty, the British crown was offerred to a German, the king of Hanover. The state of Hanover was a medium sized German principality at a time thayt there was no unified German nation. Thus was founded Britain's Hanovarian dynasty. The first Hanovarian monarch was George I. The dynasty ended with Queen Victoria.

George I (1714-27)

After the Stuarts and with the reign of William and Mary it was Parliament that now dominated English politics. On the continent it was monarch that gained power with the growth of military conflict. In Britain it was Parliament which dominated the purse strings. The wars against Louis XIV had transformed England into the dominant military power of the day--in large part because of the Royal Navy. Parliament consideed more than 50 candidates to replace Queen Anne, the last Stuart monarch. Because of the various royal marrages, most of the candidates had somme dynastic connections with the British royal family. Finally it settled on King George I, the king of Hanover. George's mother was Elizabeth Stuart. George could not even speak English. The power behind the throne, however, was the Whig politican Sir Henry Walpole. Walpole dominated British politics for a quarter century, but was finlly overwealmed as the merchant class began to replace the landed airistocracy. George was born in Osnabruck, Germany in 1660. He imprisoned his wife for 32 years for adultery. He was crowned king of Britain in 1714.

George II (1727-1760)

It was during the reign of George II that the Scots led by Bonnie Prince Charlie (Charles Edward Stewart) were crushed at Culloden Moor (1745). The English forces, with many Scottish auxilleries, were led by the Duke of Cumberland, determined to break the Jacobite clans for ever. Villages were burned, cattle stolen, and the bagpipes and kilt banned--an effort to destoy Scottish nationalism. The English were effective, but Jacobitism was to be remembered in the literature of Robert Burns. Even more importantly, Scottish clansman and their pipes wer recruited by the British Army to be the shock troops of Empire. Thus the Scottis who fought the English for so many years, helped the English establish their imperial dominion over other peoples located far from the British iles.

George III (1760-1820)

I do not yet have details on George III's boyhood, but it is likely he wore dresses. At the times the dresses worn by little girls and boys were virtually identical, although there might have been differences such as blur colored sahes for boys. At the time, there wwas no specialized children's clothing. Boys graduating from dresse would simply be outfitted with small editions of their father's clothes. George III ruled from 1760-1820, presiding over the loss of Britain's American colonies. George's aim was to rule as well as reign, and he was a skillful and astute politician; by 1763 he had managed to regain many of the powers that the Whig ministers had appropriated during the reigns of the first two Georges. His problem was that he lacked the self-confidence and the mature statesmanship to form and achieve any long-term policy. His Prime Minister, Lord North, executed the royal policies that provoked the American Revolution. The unsuccessful conclusion of that long conflict forced North to resign, and during the government crisis that followed, the king himself was almost induced to abdicate. He then took a political gamble by placing the government in the hands of the 24-year-old William Pitt, thereby restoring stability for the rest of the century. George's mind deteriorated in his later years.

George IV (1820-1830)

George Augustus Frederick was created Prince of Wales in 1762. As a little boy he wore identical dresses to his sisters. As was the the custom at mid-19th century, once he was old enough to graduate from dresses, he wore small editions of the clothes worn by his father. Prior to his oficial mairrage, George secretly married 28 year-old widow Maria FitzHerbert when, as a virtuous Catholic, she refused to be his mistress. Her religion prevented an open marriage as the 1701 Act of Settlement prohibited the succession of a Catholic to the throne. He married Princess Caroline of Brunswick (1768-1821) in 1795. He ascended to the thrones of Great Britain and Hanover, as King George IV, on January 29, 1820, and was crowned on July 19, 1821. He had spent the previous 9 years as Prince Regent for his blind and deranged father, George III. Although his reign was notable for the granting of political rights to Catholics, George IV is best remembered for his years as Prince of Wales. During that time he was a great patron of arts, but led an immoral life. His marriage to Caroline of Brunswick proved troubled, and the couple parted amid accusations of infidelity. When George refused to allow Caroline to attend his coronation, he lost much of his popularity. The couple had one child: Charlotte, born January 7, 1796. Princess Charlotte married Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg on May 2, 1816. She died in childbirth of a stillborn son on November 6, 1817. George IV ruled from 1820-30. He was know as "Prinny".

William IV (1820-37)

William was the eldest surviving brother of George IV. I have no information yet on his boyhhod. He married Adelaide, daughter of the Grand Duke of Saxe-Meininghen. They had two children, whom both died as infants. William spent many years at sea, commanding ships and later became the Admiral of the Fleet. Before succeeding to the throne, he had a mistress in Dorothea Jordan, or otherwise known as Dorothy Bland, who was a popular actress of the day. They settled down together and had 10 children. When William's allowance was low, which was frequent as it was a meagre one, Dorothy would put on her grease-paint and take to the stage, once again, to raise cash. After 20 years, William realised that he was no longer in love with her and paid Mrs. Jordan a pension in order to release himself for a marriage of wealth. The seeking of this marriage took 7 years and Mrs. Jordan died of a broken heart in those years. William eventually found Princess Adelaide, she brought no dowry, only a promise that she would look after his illegitimate children. Princess Adelaide was a good hearted and kind woman. At this stage William was only third in line to the throne, but with the death of Frederick Duke of York, he became heir. He was 65 years old when he was crowned King. William IV ruled from 1830-37. Nobody expected much of him and he was referred to him as "silly Billy". Britons hoped that he would be easier to respect than his hated brother. He did some good for British politics by creating enough Whig Peers to force the Great Reform Bill through the Tory House of Lords. He died at the age of 71.

Victoria (1837-1901)

Queen Victoria is one of Britain's most important monarchs. Many did not think such a young, inexperienced girl was up to the job. They had not reckoned on either her character or her marvelous good fortune in choosing her husband. German-born Prince Albert was not much older, but his intelect and judgement helped Victoria to learn to be a great queen. It was during her reign that Britain passed into the modern worls. Victoria is generally referred to as the Grandmother of Europe. She had nine children, four boys and five girls. All but one of these children mairred and had children, by the four generation, hundreds of decendents had mairred into virtually every royal house in Europe. Click here for information on Victoria, her children's clothes, and family life. The Queen followed many of the fashions of the day, dresses for younger boys and tunics after a boy was breeched. She also popularized two enduring fashions for boys, kilts and sailor suits.

The Saxe-Coburgs/Windsors (1901- )

It is of course the Saxe-Coburgs that we are most familar with today. The family name comes from Prince Albert, Queen Victoria's consort. The name was changed to the British sounding Windsors during the anti-Germam hysteria of World War I. The first Windsor gave him name to an era, the Edwardian age--but as Victoria lived so long, Edward only ruled a few years. While lightly regaded by his mother, Edward played an important role uin European diplomacy. Victoria was the last English monarch who ruled Britain, and only in a limited sence. Beginning with Edward the British soverign was increasingly a figure head in a country ruled by Parliament. George V and George VI saw Britain through th terrible trials of the two World Wars. Their reigns were separated by the short reign of the incrowned Edward VIII who gave up the grown "for the woman I love". George VI's bravery and devotion to duty was much admired during World War II. The royal family refused to leave London during the Blitz. Many wanted the Queen Elizabrth to take the children to saftey, but she explained that her girls would not leave without her and she would not leave without the king, adding with emophasis and "the king will never leave". The last Windsor is their daughter Elizabeth II. Her son Charles will begin a new dynasty.

New Dynasty

Dynasties are all based on the male line. Thus with Elizabeth dies and Charles becones king, there will be a new dynasty. We do not yet know what it will be known as.

Prince Charles (1948- )

Charles is the current heir to the British throne. He will become King Charles III on either the abdication or the death of his mother, Queen Elizabeth II. Prince Charles was the first heir to the throne of modern times to not be born in the presence of the government's Home Secretary, a custom since abolished. Charles mostly wore shorts as a boy. As a younger boy he often was dressed in mary Jane strap sandals and white socks--usually white ankle socks for dressy occasions. He did not commonly wear sailor suits like his father and grandfather. He did, however often wear kilts. Charles in many respects had a pioneering royal childhood. While his mother like other royal children was educated within the confines of the Palace and Windsor Castle, Charles went to a private pre-preparatory school in London's Knightsbridge (Hill House). This was a precedent-making decission made to keep pace with changing times. His male predecesors had been schooled at home and then thrown into some rather tough military schools, where they encountered all sorts of difficulties adjusting. After his preparatory school (Cheam). He wore short pants school uniforms pre-prep at Hill House and at prep school Cheam. Charles continued to often appear in kilts as a boy and teenager. In fact he still wears them on occassion, unlike his sons. Charles went to Gordonstoun in the rugged north of Scotland. Gordonstoun is one of Britain's elite private secondary (Public) schools and is famed for its rugged character-building routine of work and physical discipline. Sent mainly on the wishes of his father, Charles did not feel entirely at home here, a fact decribed by many commentators and news reports. The Gordonstoun uniform included shorts as a everyday school uniform. The boys also wore kilts for church and other formal events. Charles has two sons, William, second in line to the throne, and Henry who now face their own problems in dealing with the press.

Prince William (1982- )

Prince William, as first son of the hier, is the current second in line to the throne. One day he will become King William V, a great and heavy responsibility. Since 1985 it has been royal policy that William should not fly in the same aeroplane as his father, Charles, since one fatal crash would mean the loss of England's next two kings. William's mother, Diana, set royal precedents in the amount of personal attention she gave to her children and the public affection she has showed to both William and Henry (or "Harry") is well recorded. William, the oldest son of Charles and Grandson of Elizabeth II, wore shorts as a younger boy, often being dressed just like his younger brother. On occasions the boys would appear in nice outfits including white knee socks and blue Mary Jane sandals. More commonly they appeared in play shorts. He wore a short pants school uniform with ankle socks at his pre-prep school, but longs at his prepschool. Unkike his father, I have never seen him in a kilt but he did wear an emaculate white sailor suit for his uncle's wedding. William attended preparatory school in London and then on to board at a prepartaory school (???). By this time his preparatory school had a long pants school uniform. His parents managed to keep William away from the interests of the press apart from on one notable occasion when he was hit on the head with a golf club during a school games lesson. Thenewspapers and especially the television news service were falling over themselves to give minute by minute coverage of what was a worrying but really quite minor incident. He is currently at Eton, England's most famous private secondary (Public) school where he wears the traditional Eton suit. Eton is a far cry from the remote Scottish school attended by his father. Both William and his younger brother have been given a pioneering childhood considering their status. They have been kept close to their parents on most occasions. They were not raised entirely by nannies, although considering the official demands on the royals, nannies did still play an important role. Neither parent was shy of showing their affection for their children in public, previously not a common trait of high-profile royals. Edward VIII, for example, compained bitterly of his father's stand-offish approach to his son. This all marked a significant change in the approach of a monarchy adapting to new social conditions and expectations.


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Created: March 3, 2002
Last updated: 6:05 AM 11/23/2007