Angolan Schools

Figure 1.--This photo shows a class at a Portuguese school in Angola. Notice the small size of the class. The photo was taken in the school of Pinheiro Furtado during 1940s. The school was located in the region of Moçâmedes (the present-day Namibe province) in southern Angola. Angola became independent only in 1975 after the socialist Revolution in Portugal. Perhaps it would be worth noting the use of clip-on suspenders for the boys' shorts. At least three boys are wearing suspenders instead of belts. Boys' suspenders were common in continental countries because boys have small hips and suspenders are a reliable way of keeping the trousers in place. We notice this a good deal in Germany, for instance.

The Portuguese reached Angola in the 15th century. They established trading posts, but did not begin to colonize the interio until the 19th century. It was thus the Portuguese that established the fiurst schools. Thisdid nit begin to any extent until the 19th century. The language of instruction was Portuguese. There were separate schools for the Portuguese and the African population. African access to educational w very limited for most of the Portuguese colonial period. Schools fun by the government were limited and mostly confined to the cities. The Government did finance schools for the Portuguese, but schools for the Africans population were mostly bleft to Roman Catholic and Protestant missionaries. Each of the missions established its own school system, although all were subject to Portuguese regulations. Thgere was limited supersion by Portuhuese authorities except for how political issues were addressed. Portuguese authorities began giving more sttention to African education (1960s). This was about the same time that the independence movement began to develop. At the time African illiteracy was very high, probably about 85 percent. Few Africans achieved a secondary education. The development of a modern education was limited, first by the independenmce war and than the civil war between rival groups thst fought for independence. Considerable progress has been made in education in recent years. The iliteravy rste has been cut in half to about 40 percent. Oil revenue has helped the country finance its school system. Children enter primary school at about age 7 years. School is compulsory for children age 7-25 years. Public education is free. Portuguese continued to be the language of instruction in schools after independence. There has been a gradual shift to vernacular (tribal) lnguages. One source reported 1.0 million primary students (1991), 0.2 million secondary students (992), and 31,000 teachers (1992). This is the last year for which stztistics are available, suggesting the weakness of the Governmental administration system. The Government allocated 2.6 percent of GDP to education (1999). The principal univeristy is the University Agostinho Neto in Luanda, founded in 1963. There were 6,331 students in tertisry institution and 787 teaching staff (1999).



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Created: 3:12 AM 6/12/2009
Last updated: 2:23 AM 6/13/2009