No other event captures the American Indian spirit like the powwow or "wacipi." Dancers in colorful dress move gracefully around the ring, a steady drum beat
directing their movements. Tradition is passed from one generation to the next.
Today's powwows often feature competitions in categories such as traditional, fancy, grass,
shawl, and jingle-dress dancing. Entrants wear different styles of clothing according to the
dance. While a fancy dancer dons bustles and beads, a shawl dancer wears a long-fringed shawl over an elaborately beaded dress, moccassins, and leggings.
Powwows present a great opportunity for non-Indians to learn about the culture, and most are open to the public. They can last anywhere from a few hours to several days, and frequently include craft displays, rodeos, and cultural exhibits. You might also get a taste of ethnic food such as the popular Indian taco, Indian fry bread, or "wojapi," a fruit pudding. >br>
A popular, Northern style of dress and dance that has emerged in
recent years, the traditional style,
has evolved from the well known
"old time Sioux" style of the early
reservation period through the 1940's. Although a clear
distinction exists, one can see an obvious connection to the old-time
Sioux Outfit, with the dancer
drawing from this earlier style
various elements which he either adheres to or uses as a basis for
his own interpretation. Therefore this form of dancing that has evolved over the years, is the
oldest form of Native American dancing.
What follows is a brief description of the major articles that
comprise the modern "traditional" dance outfit. It must be
stressed that this is only a brief description; that variations
do exist from area to area and from tribe to tribe; and that
careful observation and research be undertaken before
starting to construct this type outfit.
On his head the traditional dancer wears a roach. The longer porcupine hair is preferred
because of it's movement. The
roach spreader can be made of
bone, metal, rawhide or leather. It
can be carved, beaded, painted,
etc. or just left plain. The roach
feathers are inserted in sockets on
the spreader, with two roach
feathers being the usual number.
The rocker spreader, popular with
fancy dancers, is never seen.
Occasionally one will see dancers wearing beaded
headbands, often decorated with medallions or drops.
Quilled wheels can also be worn in the hair.
Most dancers wear a shirt, either with or without ribbon decoration. Over the shirt is worn a breastplate that usually extends below the waist. Around the neck is a choker either of hair pipes and beads or a beaded strip. Many dancers also wear one or two bandoliers of hair pipes and beads or a 3 to 5 inch strip or otter or other fur decorated with mirrors or a combination of both. A vest can be worn either of cloth or leather. Some are beaded. >br>
Arm bands and cuffs can be either beaded or metal or a
combination of the two such as beaded cuffs with metal
arm bands. The breech cloth or aprons can be made of
either cloth or leather and range from plain to heavily
Around the waist many dancers wear a woven sash similar to a
Hudson Bay sash. Over the
sash can be worn a belt, which
can be beaded or decorated
with metal tacks or conchos.
On their legs most dancers wear beaded knee bands with
6 to 10 inch leather fringe
hanging from the bottom edge.
Around the ankles are worn
angora "furs". One may see the
high fancy dance style furs worn
with the bells tied on at the
knees but this is less common.
Although rare, leggings can be worn in place of the furs and
knee bands. Both the skin tube style and cloth flap leggings
can be seen. When leggings are worn, the bells are tied
round the knees. The bells can be almost any size and type.
Fully or partially beaded, hard-soled moccasins are worn.
The bustle is usually the U-shaped type with a single row of
wing or tail feathers and two spikes pointing upward.
Sometimes additional rows of dyed and stripped feathers,
fluffs or hackles are on the inside of the bustle. Though not
as common the circular bustle and the old style mess bustle
are sometimes used, the latter being somewhat rare.
In his hands, the dancer can carry a range of objects,
commonly the wing fan, pipe bag and quirt.
The movement in this style is one that is sometimes
characterized as imitating a praire chicken. The dancer is
also said to be re-enacting the movement of a warrior
searching for the enemy.
Serious native American dancers take their costuming very
seriously. Costumes may include
Czech Seed Beads, Czech cut beads, bone hairpipe and
tubes, buffalo horn hairpipe and tubes, tin, aluminum and
brass cones, tin jingles & lids, buckskin, feathers, hackles,
fluffs, tip plumes, books, videos, warbonnets, porky
roaches, knife blades, hats, brass tacks, furs, faces, feet
and tails, tobacco, pipes, brass beads, hollow metal beads,
glass fire polish beads, plastic beads, crow beads, pony
beads, tomahawks, brass smoking hawks, campware and
ironware, clothing patterns, shirts, blankets, broadcloth,
complete line of kits from breastplates, warbonnets,
Native American Music, porky roaches to choker kits,
teeth, claws, imitation claws and feet amd a long list of other items.
Many American boy's introduction to American Indian lore and dance
through Scouting programs. Cubs often participate in programs
highligting Indian lore and dance. Many Scout troups have Indian dance
groups that perform at special events and public functions. These enthusiastic
groups have, however, varying levels of authenticity.
Some of these groups give great attention to costuming. Other groups, however, make no real effort at realistic costuming.
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