*** slavery in the ancient world ancient civilizations

Slavery in Ancient Civilizations: Specific Civilizations

slavery ancient civilizations
Figure 1.--This vase was made in Athens (about 485-480 BC). This was as Greek democracy and freedom was taking their ultimate form and at the beginning of Athens Golden age. Seemingly contradictory, both slavery along with freedom were elements of Greek society at the time. Slavery was a well established institution throughout the ancient world. It predated Greek democracy and was not created by it, but also Athens and the other Greek states made no effort to restrict it. Interestingly, many of our earliest images of slaves are from Greece--mostly household slaves. We know that the boys depicted here are slaves because free athenians dis not work as houshold servants. We of course do not know how the boys depicted here became slaves, but we suspect they were the children of a slave mother. The Greeks used slaves in various ways, one of which was household servants. Here boys of uncertain age are serving men at what looks like a dinner held in a Greek home, apparently only men invited. Notice the slave servants are depicted without any clothing. We are not always sure if this was an accurate depiction of this case family/social life are an aesthetic convention. The depiction here suggests an accurate depiction of a a social occassion, dinner at home with friends. Location: British Museum.

Slavery in many early civilizations is poorly understood. Slavery was an accepted institution and central to the economies of some major world civilization. Historians believe that slvery as a major institution probably occurred with the development of agriculture about 10,000 BC. This of course occurred in Mesopotamia. In effect the rise of civilization brought with it slavery. Agriculture required a labor force and thus a way of profitably utilzing war captives, both the captive warriors and civilians seized in the war or raids. This varied substantially from civilaztion to civilization. Some ivilizations did not have large slave populatins because the common people were largely serfs and peasants with only limited rights or prospects. The women and children of conquered populations weecsubject to enslavement. The offspring of these enslaved people provided a vast slave work force. Slavery in the early civilzations of the Middle-East is not well understood. It does not appear to hve been the fundamental basis of their ecomones and societies. Rather a basically landless peasantry with few rights was the basis of society and the ll important gricultural production. This changed with the subequent rise of other ancient civilizations. We know the most about Greece and Rome because of the written historical and literary record. History views the struggle between Greece and Persia as the conflict between Western democracy and Eastern depotism. This is in part true, but one has to bear in mind that Greek society had a substantial slave component. Slavery in both Greece and Rome are much better understood and were major components of the work force and social order, especially Rome. Slaves in Greece and Rome were drawn from widly differing peoples and there was no association with race.

River Valley Civilizations

Slavery in many early civilizations is poorly understood. Slavery was an accepted institution and central to the economies of some major world civilization. Historians believe that slvery as a major institution probably occurred with the development of agriculture about 10,000 BC. This of course occurred in Mesopotamia. In effect the rise of civilization brought with it slavery. Agriculture required a labor force and thus a way of profitably utilzing war captives, both the captive warriors and civilians seized in the war or raids. This varied substantially from civilaztion to civilization. Some ivilizations did not have large slave populatins because the common people were largely serfs and peasants with only limited rights or prospects. The women and children of conquered populations weecsubject to enslavement. The offspring of these enslaved people provided a vast slave work force. Slavery in the early civilzations of the Middle-East is not well understood. It does not appear to have been the fundamental basis of their ecomones and socidties.


Slavery was an accepted institution in all major civilizations emerging in Mesopotamia. Actual information is, however, is very limited. Mesopotamia spans millenia and many different states and socities. Few details of the institution, however, are available. Historians believe that slavery as a major institution probably occurred with the development of agriculture about 10,000 BC. This of course occurred in Mesopotamia. Agriculture required a labor force and thus a way of profitably utilzing slaves. Only imited numbers of slaves could be used by nomads. The supervision and control of slaves was was a problem for nomads. Escape would have been reatively easy. This changed with settled life and agriculture. Slaves became more valuavle. Very little is known about slavery in the earliest civilizations of Mesopotamia. Archeologists have found scattered refeences to slavery in Sumeria, Assyria, and Babalonia, mostly from remanents of legal codes which have survived. While these early codes do not sound very fair to us today as justice was to a large degree affected by social status. The very fact that there were laws limiting the owners absolute authority did provide a degree of lgal protection to slaves. very few details are available about slavery in Mesopotamia in general, let alone specially about individual states. There seem to be three ways in which people were enslaved: war captives (civiian and military), crime, and debts. Historiams debate which was the most imprtant, but we know of little solid evidence. In looking at the legal codes (Hammurabi's Code wa just the most elaborate) one can not help but be struck by the attention given to commercial issues and debt. This suugests to us that debt slavery was the primary source of slaves. Given the high rates of interest prevailing, it was rather easy to fall into debt. Both farmners and mnerchants often had to birrow to fimance operations. And a crop failure or loss of a caravan could spell fisaster. There is, however, little actual data. We also suspect that this varoed over time and among the different civilzations. There coulkd have been a pulse of slavery after a war. And we might expect the highly Asyrians to have taken many slaves as war booty. That said, the Assyrians before their imperial period were an imprtant commercial society. Historians disagree as to the importance of slavery in the different societies of Mesopotamia. In general it does not seem as wide spread as in later classical civilizations. The earliest known written references to slavery come from the city states of Sumer where information on the legal codes have been found dating to the 4th millennium BC. The Sumerian had a cuneiform symbol for slave, suggesting 'foreign' which indicates that slaves were not from the Sumerian city states, but outsiders--at least at this eraly point of writing. There are also multiple references to slavery in the Babylonian code of Hammurabi (about 1750 BC) which provide the most detailed view of slavery in Mesopotamia. Slaves under the code had the status of property or merchandise. Slaves did, however, have rights. Slaves were permitted to own property, conduct business, and even marry free women. Manumission was allowed through both self-purchase or adoption by the owner. The legal penalties for free persons and slaves were very different. No where is that more apparent than the rewards and penalties for surgeons operating on free persons or slaves.And there is the added complication is that in Babylon, there were not only free peopland slaves, but also a third class--commomers. While they are menbtioned in the Babylonian codes. not one has yet found what just how they different from free individuals and slaves. Some authors suggest that free individuals often had ties with the nobility, suggesting that they were not totally free. Commoners may have been totally independent of the nobility.


Slavery in Egypt seems to have follwed the basic pattern set in Mesopotamia. Slavery in ancient Egypt is a poorly understood subject. It is not well understood how slavery fit into the overall social-class structure. One problem is that there does not seem to be a Egyptian cartouche for slave as destinct from servant. Nor is there any known way of idebtifying slaves in the reliefs and tomb paintings of ancient. Egyptian. It was once commonly thought that major construction projects were undertaken by large gags of slaves. This is generally dismissed today. It is now thought that labor at major projects was more likely peasants who had a labor obligation after the planying or harvest seasons. They might be used in the maintenance of irrigation canals or in other important projects such as the famous pyramids. This of course is not to say that there were not slaves in ancient Egypt. The major source of slaves was war captives. This would include both the captured warriors as well as the general civilian population of conquered lands. The most famous Egyptian slaves were the Hebrews who apparently migrated to Europe because of drought. Slaves also came from law violaters. And some people sold thmselves or family members into slvery. No one knows the precise extent of Egyptian slavery. Records on such matters are not known. Most of the Egyptian population appears to have been a peasantry tied to the land, probably similar to Eeudal European serfdom, but precise details on this are unavailable. Certainly slaves were also used for agricultural labor. In fact this was probsably their major use. How theur treatment and status differened from the Egyptian peasantry is not well understood. The Egyptians appear to have enslaved whole peoples. The ancient Israelites were enslaved in Egypt during the second half of the 2nd millennium BC. Here the historical records is based on the Old Testament and not on Egyptian records. It might be thought that slaves would obviously fill the lowest rank of society. It shoul be remembered that as the mzjor source of slaves were captured prioners and the people of conquered cities, these people probably came from a social strata and probably possed skills superior to the field peasant. We do know that the child of a slave imherited the slave status, even if the farher was free born. We also know that Egypt imported slaves and negotiated fugative slave treaties with neighboring states. There does not appear to have been any racial component to Egyptian slavery. In fact, some pharoes appear to have had African features. (This was a fact ignored when Egyptology became a subject of great interest in the 19th centutry.)


Our understnding of Chimese slavery is limited. We believe that the situation was similiar to Mesopotamia. The vast majority of the population was was the peasantry which commonly did not own land. They were not slaves, but had very limited rights. While a small minority of the population, it seems clear that were large numbrs of slves. The first references to slavery noted by historians was during the Shang-dynasty China (about 1500-1066 BC). Something like 5 percent of the ppulation may have been enslaved. During the Qin dynasty, male slaves are believed to have been used on state projects like the Terracotta Army. Some slaves were those convicted of crimes such as rape. [Lewis, p. 252.] Enslavement seems to have also meant castration, but we are not sure how closely cinnected this was. Emperor Wang Mang banned slavery (1st century AD). His succesor repealed this edict. Chinese accounts report a shortage of women duing the medieval Tang Dynasty. The Chinese imported Korean women as slaves. The Ming finally banned slavery, at least in theiry. In actual practice, howevr, slavery continued throughout the Ming dynasty. The Qing (Manchu) dynasty permitted an expansion of slavery, at least in the early years. The Qing took some measures against slavery.


India is the least well understood of the great river valley civilizations. The Indus script has not vyer been dechiphered, in part becsause there are so few examples found. Thus very little is known about many aspects of the Indus Valley culture, including slavery. In the Indus Valley, the first documented evidence of slavery coincides with the Aryan invasion of about 1500 BC. Ancient Indian literature indicates that slavery was sanctioned throughout India from the 6th century BC to the beginning of the Christian era.

Subsequent Ancient Civilizatioins

This importance of slavery changed with the subequent rize of other ancient civilizations beyond the original river valley civiizations. We know the most about Greece and Rome because of the written historical and literary record. History views the struggle between Greece and Persia as the conflict between Western democracy and Eastern depotism. This is hoe the Greeks saw it and is in part true. It was the Greeks who created the very concept of freedom. And they are the first society in which large numbers of men expeienced freedom. One has to bear in mind that it was Greek society and the economy had a large slaver component, proportionlly larger than Persia and other the former river valley civilizations. That saidm these societies were based on a larfely land-less peasantry which while not ebslved, had few rights. Slavery in both Greece and Rome are much better understood because of the surviving literature. Slavery was a major component of the work force and social order, this was especially true of Rome. Slaves in Greece and Rome were drawn from widly differing peoples and there was no association with race. The rise of Christinity in the Roman Empire would eventially end slavery as an important institution in the classical world.


Our knowledge of slavery in Carthag as in many other areas is limited. Slavery does not seem to have been as important as with the closely relarted Tyrians. Tyre was a state in the easter Mediterraneam whicg founded Carthage as a colony. Tyore wa know for slave raiding, something that was apparently ended by the Cartaginins (by 500 BC). This is an assessment based on the first Cathaginin-Roman Treaty whoich mentions cosal raiding. A major soyrce of slaves was war. As i other anient states, cCaptured enemy soldiers might be ransomed or even exchanged. One source rports the going ransome rate being two 'mina' (a mina was equal to 50 shekels, or about 0.944 pounds in silver). Thi was the price Hannibal demanded for the suvivors captured at his great Cannae victory. If the ememy country refused or could not pay, the captives were killed or sold into slvery. An caccountbof an erly naval battle describes the fate of Phocaia sailors taken captive by Carthage and their Tyrrhenian (Etruscan) allies. The Tyrrhenians killed their prisoners by stoning. The more commercially atuned Carthage sold their captives into slavery. Enemy civilians were also fair game. The common fate of the people in a besieged city that failed to surrender was was pillage and slavery. This ultimately was the fate of Cathage itself with the Roman victory in the Third Punic War.


At the bottom of Celtic society were slaves. Celtic slavery is not well documented, again primarily because the Celts were a pre-literate society. We know little about Celtic slavery at the height of Celtic poer when they domnated much of northern Europe (5th-4th century BC). The most noted account is that of Patricius, a British Roman captured by Irish slave raiders (4th century AD). [Patrick] Patricius was from a comfortable middle classed family and sold to be used as a slave shepherd. He suffered terribly with little or no clothing and food provided by his master. It is likely, although from relativly recent times, this is how Celtic slaves were utilized and treated in earlier periods. There were some similarities to the well-documented practice in the classical world (Greece and Rome). The Celts acquired slaves in war, and raids. There was also domestic penal and debt servitude. Slave status is believed to have been hereditary, although the illtreatment Patricius describes argues against extensive coupling and offspring as was the case in the classical world. Manumission was possible, but the prevalence is unknown. Some sources suggest tht it was discouraged by law, perhaps because of the value of slaves. The Irish Celtic word word for a female slave (cumal was also the term for a generic unit of value. [Kelly, p.96.] The Celts although had some slavery practices similr to the clasical world, unlike the Greeks and Romnans they were not a slave society. Slaves existed, but they did not do most of the work. This was domne by ordinary free Celts. And the numbers involved seem relatively small. The nobility and rich jndividuals may have had some slaves. The ordinary Celt did not. There is consiuderable indication that the principal purpose of slavery was as an export item. The Celts exported slaves to the Romans. [Siculus] Etymologists believe that the Old Irish word for slave (cacht) and the obvously related Welsh word caeth seem derived from the Latin captus meaning captive. This is part of the evidence supporting the slave trade as part of the contact between Latin and Celtic societies. [Simmons, p. 1615.]


We know that slavery was a part of Etruscan culture, but we know very little about it. Authors largely extrapolate Etruscan slavery based on what is known of slavery in the wider Mediterranean world. They tend to believe that slaves were widely employed in a wide range of tasks, including household servants, field labor, mining, quarry work, artisan manufacture, and entertainers. We are not sure about soldiers. It is believed that slaves were used in the same manner as in Rome and obtained in the same way. They were taken in the same way: war prisoners including civilians of conquered cities, trade, and probably also criminals and debtors. One sources identifies Trasalpine Europe a an important source. [Briggs] It is likely that Etruscan slavery was common. What we do not know is how common it was nor the status of the slaved. We suspect that it was much less common then in Rome, largely because the Etruscan city states did not have huge empire won by military conquest and thus access to huge numbers of conquered peoples. A rare , source of information on Etruscan slavery is the tomb paintings, but they mostly depict only household slaves. Slaves can be distinguished from servants because they are pained naked. The fact that they are some tines named, suggesting their status may have been higher than was the case in Rome. The distinction between slaves, freed slaves, and laborers as well as social status is largely unknown. This is very different from Rome where a great deal is known. The only known written sources are Greek and and only address Etruscan silvery indirectly. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, for example, notably described those disenfranchised in Etruscan society as free men who were treated like slaves. This is similar to the other references. All are indirect and often refer to what is often see as abnormal circumstances. This has caused some historians to speculate that Etruscan slavery was more humane than Greek or Roman slavery. [Benelli]


The Germanic peoples and tribes when they came i contact with the Romans were warrior societies organized to waging war, but beginning to settle down and farm. Most were foot soldiers equipped with a spear. They appear yo have originated on the Eurasia Steppem but after moving into the north European forrests, military strength was primarily infantry units. Like the Celts before them ther was a limited use of mounted troops. There was a relatively number of suitably large and fast steeds. And German society did not produce the agricultural syrplus needed to maintain substantial numbers of horses. German tribal warriors fought in small bands with no rel organized plans of fighting, this they would eventually learn from the Romans. warriors would commonly often make suprise raids on neigboring villages, they would charge wildly, principally on foot. These warriors was expected to succeed, or die in the effort. A successful raid would result in captives which could be enslaved, cattle and other riches. While adult males were warriors, farm work was done by women and children, and an occasional slave. Unlike Rome, however, slavery was not common in ancient Germania. The slave that did exist mostly obtained in raids or prisoners of war.


Greece is the first ancient civilization for which we have a full understanding of Slavery. This is a little complicated because unlike Rome, there was no nunified state. Each city state had their own laws and in some cases like Sparta there were major differences with the rest if Greece. Our understanding of Athens is the most detailed, but a good bit is known about other city states as well. The Greek city states, despite their tradition of democracy, had economies which were to a substantial degree based on slavery. Some historians have described the Greeks as the first true slave society in history. Large scale Greek slavery emerged between the 6th and 4th centuries BC. Major slave markets developed in the larger city states (Athens, Rhodes, Corinth, Delos, and others). As many as a thousand slaves might be sold in a single day. This was in large measure determined by military action. After a particularly important engagement, a Greek city state like Athens might have as many as 20,000 captives to deal with. The institution of slavery, however, varied widely among the different city states. Athens and the other city states had what can be seen as slavery in the the standard form. Sparta was substantially different. The Spartan economy was based on labor performed by the helots. Some authors suggest that is more correct to refer to them as serfs. They were a conquered people, They did work on lrge estates run by the Spartans, but lived in family groups on hereditary land. They were required to turn over the bulk of their harvest to their Spartan master who was an absentee landholder. The rights of Greek slaves varied from city state to city state. This varied as to who owned them and the tasks assigned. Slaves were owned by both the state and idividuals. Conditions varied significantly. The mines owned by the state were worked by slaves. The state leased the mines to private proprietors who often drive the slaves savagely to maximize profits. Other state slaves were treated better. The best treated were 300 Scythian archers who somewhat strangely served as the Athens police force. Most Athenian slaves were privately owned. Most of these were employed as domestic servants. Freeborn Athenians did not work as domestics. The conditions of slavery for privately owned slaves was primarily determined by the relationship whuch developed with their masters. Here close relations were possible. Women might be used to care for the children and thus become trusted family retainers. They also might be used as concubines offering the opportunity to become emotionally close withe masters. Male slaves by take on the role of a steward and actually run the household.


As with neigboring societies, slavery was practiced by the Hitties. Little is known about the prevalence of slavery. The Hittie Code of the Nesilim (about 1650-1500 B.C.) provide another view of slavery in the ancient Middle East. The code of the Hittites in some ways more humane than that of many neigboring states, but the slave was still seen as an inferior person. An the system was still severe. The slave's master had the power of life and death. There were instances that an animal might be substituted for a man and some form of compensation paid. The spirit of Hittite seems to have have become somewhat more humane than their Babylonian and or Assyrian legal codes. Archeoloists have found a codified collection of some 200 Hittite laws, complied in a single document consisting of two tablets. They include laws from different eras exhibiting a constant trend towards less draconian and more humane punishment. Even so drawing and quartering was the sentence for an agricultural crime. There wer othr capital crimes, including rape or for a slave disobedience and sorcery. Slavery among the Hittites was clearly less restrictive than the practices in other civilizations. A Hittite slave could marry to a free woman which was not very common in th acuent world. If the couple subsequentky divorced, the slave could buy his freedom as part of the pricess.


The Persian Empire was founded by Cyrus the Great (576/590�529 BC). Slavery was an important institution in ancient Persia and there are substantial records which provide a better idea of the institution than in earlier states of the ancient Middle East. There are still, however, many questions. The famous Cyrus Cylinder speaks of abolishing slavery, yet we know that slavery was an important institution in ancient Persia. Persia as founded by Cyrus was an agressvely expansionary military empire. War thus was the primary source of slaves. [Falceli�re et al, p. 433.] This provided many opportunities for war captives and to enslave conquered peoples. Historians note numerous instances in with large numbers of peoples were enslaved, such as Persian victories over the Greeks in the Aegean islands of Chios, Lesbos, and Tenedos. Slaves taken in military campaigns were known as "the booty of the bow". [Dandamaev and Lukonin, p. 156.] The Persians are also known to have breed slaves to supplement war booty. This perhaps reflects the peace that Persian victories brought, thus reducing the supply of war captives. Rebels and crinals were also sources of slavey even after the Empire had been well established. Slaves were distributed to both Persian nobels and military commanders. Persian law made slavery hereditary. The legal status of slaves in Persia was that of livestock and other moveable property. [Dandemaev and Lukonin, p. 153.] This varied somewhat because in some provinces added to the Empire, local law and custom was allowed to remain in force. Slaves were held by the Persin monarchy itself as state slaves. They were used in different ways. The Great King or monarchy maintained a very large retinue of mostly slaves to both serve him and work his estates. Most performed agricultural labor on the monarch's estates. Others perormed a wide range of other tasks (bakers, cooks, millers, personal servants, winemakers and beer brewers, wine waiters. Boys were made into eunuchs for a range of functions in the toyal households. [Dandamaev and Lukonin, pp. 158, 170.] State slaves were used to work mines as mineral resource were owned by the state. [Olmstead, pp. 74 ff] Working in mines was a virtual death sentence for Roman slaves. One source suggests that Persian slaves working in mines were well paid. [Dandemaev and Lukonin, pp. 161-62.] Children made up a substantial portion of Persian slaves. Te Fortification Tablets at Persepolis, the Persian capital, reveal that 13 percent of the slaves were boys and 10 percent girls. I'm unsure at to the reason for this statistical disparity. The domestic arrangements are not fully understood. One source suggests that at least some slaves lived together in family units and were moved as required for work assignments in thesze units. There are documented instances of slaves being moved in groups of 100-1,500 people. [Dandemaev and Lukonin, pp. 160�61.]


The Phoenicians were a trading people ans slaves were an important commodity trade in the ancient world. Slave trading ppars to have been part of Phoenician trading from an early point. They were not just middle men, but were known to conduct slave raids. The traffic in slaves was one in which the Phoenicians engaged from very early times. They were not above kidnapping men, women, and children in one country and selling them into another. [Hom] They conducted some of the principal slave markets of the Eastern Mediterannean. In their wars with the Jews in Canaan, they sold captives into skavery. [Joel iii. 6.] They traded with the Moschi and Tibareni for slaves from the Black Sea region. [Ezek. xxvii. 13.91 ] The Caucasian tribes wer known to provide slave-girls to the harems of the East. The Thracians who were not at the time yet confined to Europe, but at one time controlled muh of Anatolia reportedly trafficked in their own children. [Herod. v. 5.]


Slavery was central to the Roman economy, perhaps more so than any other ancient civilization. Slavery was a minor institution in the early years of the Republic. This gradually changed as Rome expanded throygh conquest. Slaves were were primarily war captives, both captured wariors and the women and children of conquered populations. The offspring of these enslaved people provided a vast slave work force. The victors in battle might enslave the losers rather than killing them. Slavery in Rome were major components of the work force. The performed virtually every occupation required in the Romn economy. The citize farmer was the bed-rock of the early Republic. Gradually farming with the influx of slaves shifted to estate slavery which relied on chain gangs to work the fields. Large numbers of slaves were also used to work the mines, commonly under atrocious conditions under brutal overloads. Slaves were also employed as servants and artisans in the cities. Slaves working as domestics in private houshold hd the best opportunity to engratiate themselves with their masters and perhap earn their freedom. Slaves were drawn from widly differing peoples and there was no association with race. Slaves might be blond, blue eyed Anglo-Saxons from Britania or blacks from Sahara as well as evry other racial type. Slavery in Rome had no racial basis. Even those of Italian stock were enslaved. It was thus impossible to tell from one's physical appearance if one was a slave. This complicated control. The Romn Senate debated establishiung a destinctive dress for slaves. In the end, the Senate decided against a slave attire, partly because they decided it was dangerous because it would show the slaves just how numerous they were. As in the Americn South, slavery was justified on the basis of the natural inferiority of certain individuals. There were three Servile Wars or slave revolts in the 2nd and 1st century BC. Rome is noted for the barbarity with which slaves were treated. This may in part be due to the martial tradition of Rome and contempt for defeated peoples. It may also reflect the trails of the Servile Wars and need to subject such a large part of the population.


The Synthians were a tribal people with less cenbtralized structure than the settled people of Mesopotamia and the Eastern Meidtrranean. They appear to have been heavily involved in the slave trade and the Steppe from an early point seems to have been an important source of trade for Middle Eastern and Mediterannean slave markets. This is not well documented because the Synthians were a pre-litrate nomadic people. Much of what we know comes from the Greeks. Greek sources report that the Scythians prospered from the sale of people captured on the steppe or in raids on more settled populations (5th century BC). This is not to say that this trade bgaan at this time, but only that the Greeks entered their literary erat this time and begn reporting it. [Herodotus] And it continued for centuries. The Greeks described a Scythia Minor located in the Balkans (modern Bulgaria and Romanua_. In addition there was a Greater Scythia to the east on the Steppe East Ukraine to the lower Don basin. The Don was known as Tana�s and was a principal trading route and remaimed one. The Scythians seem to have generated wealth and became an important force because of their control over the slave trade from the Steppe south to the Greek Black Sea colonial ports of Olbia, Chersonesos, Cimmerian Bosporus, and Gorgippia. Slaves were nit the only important commodity. Grain and other itens were also important, but slaves appear to have been very important.


Benelli, Enrico. The Etruscan World (2013). There is a chapter on "Slavery and Manumission".

Briggs, Daphne Nash. (2002) "Servants at a rich man's feast: Early Etruscan household slaves and their procurement," Etruscan Studies Vol. 9, Article 14.

Dandemaev, M.A. and V.G Lukonin. The Culture and Social Institutions of Ancient Iran (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1989).

Falceli�re, et al. (1970).

Herodotus. Histories.

Hom. /Od./ xv. 415-484; Herod. i. 1.

Kelly, Fergus. Guide to Early Irish Law (Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 1988), 358p.

Lewis, Mark Edward. The early Chinese Empires: Qin and Han (Harvard University Press: 2007).

Olmstead, A.T. History of the Persian Empire (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1948).

Patrick. Conession.

Siculus, Diodorus. Siculus was an important Greek historian.

Simmons, Victoria. In John T. Koch, ed. Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia Vol. I (ABC-CLIO, 2006).


Navigate the Children in History Website:
[Return to the Main ancient slavery page]
[Return to the Main slavery page]
[Return to the Main ancient freedom page]
[Introduction] [Biographies] [Chronology] [Climatology] [Clothing] [Disease and Health] [Economics] [Geography] [History] [Human Nature] [Law]
[Nationalism] [Presidents] [Religion] [Royalty] [Science] [Social Class]
[Bibliographies] [Contributions] [FAQs] [Glossaries] [Images] [Links] [Registration] [Tools]
[Children in History Home]

Created: 5:22 PM 7/5/2014
Last updated: 9:11 PM 6/4/2022