Tanzania


Figure 1.--This post-card image was taken at a village near Dar es Salaam, probably just after World War I. Britain during the War seized German East Africa (GEA). It was divided between Britain and Belgium and was reorganised as League of Nations mandate. Most of GEA went to Britain and became the colony of Tanganyika. Children in African society wer an important part of the work force. Here the children ahad the responsibility of bringing water to their home for cooking and drinking.

Tanzania is located at the heart of East Africa. It lies between Lake Tanganyika (the border with the Congo) and the Indian Ocean. In the north the country borders on Burundi, Rawanda, Uganda, Lake Victoria, and Kenya. In the south the coiuntry borders on Zambia, Malawi, Lake Malawi, and Mozambique. The Great Rift Valley cuts across western Tanzania which has resulted in the discovery of fosilized remains of ancient huminoids. The first European to reach Tanzania was the Portuguese explorer, Vasco da Gama (late-15th century). The Portuguese seized control of both Zanzibar and the coastal area. Omani Arabs seized back control of Zanzibar (1699). The Germans, anxious to have an empire, seized control of what is now Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi--German East Africa (late 19th century). The British and Germans reached a deal as a part of the European Scramble for Africa. Tanzania was a quiet part of the German Empire except for the Maji revolt (1905). The British during World War I seized control of German East Africa. The British colony became Tanganika, as a League of Nations mandates. Britain granted Tanganika independence within the Commonwealth (1961). As Britain began granting independence to its colonies, the situation on Zanzibar became unstable. After riots on Zanzibar following independence (1963), the island was united with Tanganika to form Tanzania (1964). We have begun to work on a Tanzanian history page. The population was affected by the 19th century Arab slave trade centered at Zanzibar. The country became independent when Tanganyika was united with Zanzibar (1964). We also have a page on missionaries. Tanzania has more than 120 different tribes. A Tanzanian reader suggests that this diversity has been an important factor in the country avoidig tribal civil wars that have aflicted other African countriues.

Geography

Tanzania is located at the heart of East Africa just south of the Eqator and Lake Victoria. It lies between Lake Tanganyika (the border with the Congo) and the Indian Ocean. In the north the country borders on Burundi, Rawanda, Uganda, Lake Victoria, and Kenya. In the south the coiuntry borders on Zambia, Malawi, Lake Malawi, and Mozambique. The Great Rift Valley cuts across western Tanzania which has resulted in the discovery of fosilized remains of ancient huminoids. Tanzania has an extrodunary geography, one of the most varied for a country of its size. It includes Africa’s highest point -- snow covered Mount Kilimanjaro (19,341ft / 5,895m). There are also numerous lakes and mountains. There are also some of Africa's most famed national parks. The north-east portion of the country is particularly mountaneous and includes Mt. Meru and Mt. Kilimanjaro, both inactive volcanoes. The country is dominated by a large central plateau, covered with grasslands, plains and rolling hills. The Serengeti Plain is part of that plateau and the best known area of Tanzania beause of the impressive wildlife. It is a large geographical region that covering some 30,000 km2 (12,000 sq mi).

History

The first European to reach Tanzania was the Portuguese explorer, Vasco da Gama (late-15th century). The Portuguese seized control of both Zanzibar and the coastal area. Omani Arabs seized back control of Zanzibar (1699). The Germans, anxious to have an empire, seized control of what is now Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi--German East Africa (late 19th century). The British and Germans reached a deal as a part of the European Scramble for Africa. Tanzania was a quiet part of the German Empire except for the Maji revolt (1905). The British during World War I seized control of German East Africa. The British colony became Tanganika, as a League of Nations mandates. Britain granted Tanganika independence within the Commonwealth (1961). As Britain began granting independence to its colonies, the situation on Zanzibar became unstable. After riots on Zanzibar following independence (1963), the island was united with Tanganika to form Tanzania (1964). The population was affected by the 19th century Arab slave trade centered at Zanzibar. The country became independent when Tanganyika as united with Zanzibar (1964).

Economy

Tanzania is the second largest economy in the East African Community and the 12th largest economy among the more than 50 African countries. The economy is primarily agricultural. More than hslf the populsatiomn is involbed in agriculture. This is a factor in the endemic poverty that persists. About a third of the populatiin lives in poverty. Like most developing countrues, after independence the country's leaders pursued sicialist economic polices and created a command economy. The result was little or no economic growth and develoment. Leaders respondung to the succcess reported by the Asian Tigers abd China, began to introduce market reforms meaning capitalism (1985). The ininital results tio ghis transition were not incouraging with production falling in the transition. Only after two decades did the country begin reoportung GDP levels abouve the transition period (2007).

Activities

We do not yet have much information on children activities in Tanzania. Until after World War II, the oprimary activity was work and continues to be a major activity for many children. Since independence, tanzania has built a public school system. As a result, scool is now a primary actibity for many Tanzanian children. Most now attended primary school, although the numbers reaching secondary and especially university schools is still limited. Education in rural areas and for girls is still a problem. We do not yet know much about games children play. Chikdren as income levels rise have more play time. The principal sport in the country is football. Religion is another activity. Tanzanians mostly identify as either Christian or Muslim, although mny continue to practice animist folk beliefs as well. This includes many who identify as Christian and Muslim. The Government has been largely respectful ofcreligious liberty. A little less than a third of the cuntry identifies as Christian, split between Catholics and Protestants. The Catholic Chrustians slighlky outnumber the OProtestants. About a third of the populstion identufy as Muslim. There are small numbers of minority relgious groups including Traditional Africanist, Buddhist, and Hindus. Islam was the first major religion to reach Tnzanbia abnd East Africa in general (8th centyury AD). It was spread by merchants and slave traders. Christinity arrived with the Europeans, although did not make a major impact until colonization (late-19th centuty). We note missionaries who played an important role bginning in the mid-19th centuty.

Ethnicity

Tanzania has more than 120 different tribes. A Tanzanian reader suggests that this diversity has been an important factor in the country avoidig tribal civil wars that have aflicted other African countriues.








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Created: 10:49 PM 9/10/2018
Last updated: 10:49 PM 9/10/2018