A few Scotts arrived in what is now Canada when the English granted a charter for Nova Scotia (1621). The original colony was not very succesful and it was turned over to the French (1632). France had a long tradition as a Scottish ally. A few Scotts emigrated to what became New France, but not very many. A small group of Orkney Islanders were recruited by Hudson Bay Company which was heavily involved in the fur trade (1720s). The Scotts began arriving in Canada after the British seized the province from France in the French and Indian Wars, defeating the French at Montreal (1759). As a result of the Highland Clearances and the suppression of the Highland Clans after Culloden (1746), large numbers of destitute Scotts emmigrated to America and Canada. An interesting observation here is that the Scotts who emigrated to America were staunchly anti-English (as were the Irish who came in the 19th century). The Scotts in Canada, however, do not seem to have had this same anti-English sentiment. A factor here was The anti-British Scotts-Irish from Ulster with mostly Lowland Scottish origins mostly emigrated at a time at which Canada was still a French colony and thus went mostly to the English colonies, many settling in the bacwoods. The American Revolution was another factor (1776-83). Not only did Scotts who supported the Crown seek refuge in Canada, but there was a natural division of sunsequent immigration. The more pro-British Scotts went to Canada while the more anti-British Scotts went to America. Almost all Canafdian Scotts arrived after Canada became British, most after tge american Revolution.
A few Scotts arrived in what is now Canada when the English Crown just before the Civil War granted a charter for Nova Scotia to Sir William Alexander (1621). Sir Willian set up small settlements on Cape Breton and on the Bay of Fundy. These settlemebts were not very succesful and it was turned over to the French (1632).
France had a long tradition as a Scottish ally. A few Scotts emigrated to what became New France, but not very many. The French like the Spanish and Portuguese maintained a strict religuous test. Protestats and Jews were prohibited. New France unlike the English colonies to the south had an economy based on the fur trade. This attracted far fewer settlers than the agriculturally based English colonies. And their wws no religious test. King James I apparently was prepared to impose one, but the Pilgrims sailed for Plymouth before he was able to do so. This also led to the significantly larger population developing in the Eglish colonies.
The most northerly English colony in North America was the Hudson Bay Colony focused on the fur trade. Centered around Hudson Bay in the far north, the Hudson Bay Company traded for fur with the native Americans. These were itenms of great value at the time. They competed with the French, Aboriginal, and Metis fur traders. The Company managed to gain control over the vast drainage basin of Hudson Bay which t the time was also called Rupert's Land. The Company
recruited a small group of Orkney Islanders (1720s). Many of the early Scotts to reach Canada like the Orkney Islanddrs were Gaelic speaking Higlanders.
As a result of the terrible Highland Clearances. Higlanders were burned off or otherwise forced off their land. [Radford] This was part of the overall suppression of the Highland Clans after Culloden (1746). Ironically while the English Crown after Culoden moved to supress the Highland Clans, they also began recruiting Scottish regiments. For many dispossed Highlanders, enlistment was the only available economic opportunity. The Scotts began in effect the shock troops for empire. The Scots became renowned for their fighing spirit. The Black Watch and the the Scottish Greys were the two best known regiments. English regiments often had Scottish pipers leading them into battle. When of all people, George Washington, set off the French and Indian Wars (1754). French victories followed. The British expelled the Acadians and moved powerful forces into North America, including many Scottish soldiers. The Royal Navt made it difficult to reinforce their units. Wolfe won the Battle of Quebec fought at Montreal but he died on the battlefield (1759). His main lieutenant was a Scottsman, James Murray, who became the first govenor general of the Province of Quebec. Many of the Scottish soldiers who fought the French and Indian War in North America decided to stay in Canada and to a lesser extent the English Atlantic coast colonies. Most of the fighting had been in Canada. The British victory in the French and Indian Wars (Seven Years War) changed the face of North America. After the Treaty of Paris (1763), Scottish soldiers established on the North Shore of St-Lawrence River between Montreal and Trois-Rivières. Most of them married French Canadian women, largely because they were the European women in the province and were Cstholic. They began learning France (few of their wives and children learned Gaelic). Gradually Gaelic speaking whivh had been importantg dclined. The well-known Melcher's Scotch was produced by these Scottish settlers in Berthierville. And the British victory mean that the Scotts began emmigrating to Canada in real numbers. One would have expected the Scotts to be anti-British, but most seem to have made their peace with the British. Here service in the British army as well as land grants were factors. An interesting observation here is that many cotts who emigrated to America, especially the Scotts-Irish, were staunchly anti-English (as were the Irish who came in the 19th century). The Scotts in Canada, however, do not seem to have had this same anti-English sentiment. And in the subsequent years the Crown became in a strange way the protector of French Canadians. If the Americans had seized Canada, surely the French would have been absorbed in the American melting pot. Large numbers of destitute Scotts emmigrated to America and Canada after it was safely in British hands.
A factor here was The anti-British Scotts-Irish from Ulster with mostly Lowland Scottish origins mostly emigrated at a time at which Canada was still a French colony and thus went mostly to the English colonies, many settling in the backwoods. The Scotts-Irish are a often poorly understood group. They are actually a sub-set of Scotts, but specifically Low-Land Scotts. They were not ethnically Irish and certainly not Catholic. The Irish in their name comes from the fsct that thry briefly lived in Ireland, specifically Ulster. Scotts-Irish is an American term. In Britain they are more commonly referred to as the Ulsrer-Scotts which a more understandable term. They played an important role in British and American history--especially the American Revolution. They also have played an inportant cultural role in America. The Scotts-Irish originted in the Scottish Lowlands. They were not strongly involved in the Scottish risings, this came mostly from the Highlands. Their location in the Lowlands meant that they were the Scotts most influenced culturally by the English. But like other Scotts they were Presbeterians. They were used by the English Crown to pacify Northern Ireland by replacing Irish Ctholics with nmore loyal Scottish Presbeterians. This was since known as the Ulster Plantations. The experiment was partially successful, they did replace the Irish Catholics, but they were not compliant enough for English land lords and their oposition to the Church of England caused problems with the Crown.
The American Revolution was another factor in increasing Scottish immigration (1776-83). Not only did Scotts who supported the Crown in the 13 colonies seek refuge in Canada, but there was a natural division of subsequent immigration. The more pro-British Scotts went to Canada while the more anti-British Scotts went to America. Almost all Canadian Scotts arrived after Canada became British, most after the American Revolution. One author describes his United Empire Loyalist ancestors who lost their land as aesult of reprisals during and after the Revolution. [Radford] This began the period of substantial Scottish emigration to Canada. A factor here is that the Scotts who settled in Canada after the Ftench and Indian War and Revolution began writing home about the opportunities in Canada. And as the early settlers were mostly Higlanders, they attracted mostly Highlanders. One estimate suggests 15,000 Scotts, mostly Higlanders, emigrated to Canada (1770-1815). They primarily chose Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, and Quebec. Most came from the western Highlands and the islands. They were as aesult, mostly Gaelic speakers and unlike the Lowlanders, mostly Roman Catholics. The Higlanders had resisted the Reformation in Scotland. They thus had an afinity with French Canadians. They tended to settle in agrarian communities.
As a result of the emigration from the Scottish Highlands and Islands, Gaelic had become an important language in Canada, after English and French. Although the families of many of the Scottish soldiers were becoming French speakers. The earl of Selkirk led some Highlanders to the Red River Colony on land granted by the Hudson Bay Colony (1811). Scotts from the Hudson Bay Colony involved in the fur trade, many with Native Anerican families, also joined them. This was essentially the foundation of Manitoba. The fur trade was the most valuable activity in North America during the 18th andcearly-19th centuries. The first American millionare in the early-19th century was John Jacob Astor who made his fortune in the fur trade. Canadians also made fortunes, including the Scotts involved in the fur trade. Some Scotts became very walthy. Some were involved in the Hudson Bay Company. Others were involved in the Northwest Fur Tradeing Company founded by La Verendry while Canaa was still in French hands. Instead of staying on vessels while receiving Indians for fur trading, the Scottish sent 'voyageurs' Scottish and French-Canadians) from the Province of Quebec who traveled from Montreal to Manitoba and Northwest territories. Such travels couldctke 3 years traveling by canoe. During that time, many voyageurs had relationship with Native American women, helping to establish a substantal Métis people. Louis Riel is a good example. Gabrielle Roy, the well-known writer from St-Boniface in Manitoba was also a Métis. Many Métis wished to found a French-Speaking province in Manitoba but Federal politics crushed this plan at the Battle of Batoche. It was the end of the French
immigration from Quebec to Manitoba. The Scottish owner of the Northwest Company became extremely rich and
built castles in what was called the "Golden Square miles" on the south side of the Mont Royal in Montreal. Among those wealthy Scottish were names like McGill (who founded a renowned university), Mctavish, Mcgregor and others.
After the Napoleonic Wars, Scottish emigration began to change (1815). The numbers not only sunstantially increased, but the British Government began to promote emigration from the Lowlands, obstensibly as a security measure. Unlike the Scotts-Irish who originsted in the Lowlands, the actutal Lowlanders identified with the British more than the Highlanders and were Protestant . The numbers were astonishing fed by the ddpressed economic conditions ikn Scotland. Some 170,000 Scots emigrated to Canada (1815-70). This was a period before large scale European emgration began to America, excdpt the Irish. Andc their destinations changed. They no longer settled mostly in the Maritimes or Catholic Quebec, but instead headed further west to Ontario abd beyond. The Canadian population becane about 15 percent scittish. [1871 Census] The Scottish emogrants were very diverse. The lsrgest group were farmers seeking land, but there were also business and professional people, particularly teachers and clergymen. Unlike the early Dcottish emigrants, this second wave from the Lowlands were modtly Presbyterians and spoke English as theirmain language. These trends continued in the late-19th century. nother 80,000 Scotts emigrated to Canada (1870-1900)
Scottish emigration increased in the early-20th century. Some 340,000 emigrated before the outbreak of Wirkd War I (1914). And another 200,000 during the 1920s. This was a period in which the United States began to restict emogration.
Radford, Tom. In A Land As Green As the Sea.
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