*** lebanon Lebanese history

Lebanese History

Lebanese politics

Figure 1.--Here a Lebanese boy expresses his rebel setiments by flinging a handful of dirt at a crude caricature of pro-western President Camille Chamoun on a Beirut wall. The photograph is dated August 2, 1958. The wire service caption read, "Political mudslinging: A Lebanese boy expresses his rebel sentiments by flinging a handfulmof dirt at a crude caricature of pro-western President Camille Chamoun on a Beirut wall. The youngster's gesture in the Lebanese capital's rebel held eastern quarter Thursday followed the parlimentary election od army commander Gen. Faud Shehab to suceed Chamoun. Arabic writing on the wall says, 'Death to Chamoun'."

There is evidence of human habitation in Lebanon from about the development of modern man (around 50,000 BC). Lebanon is part of what came to be called the Levant. Since the dawn of civilization, Lebanon has been a battleground for the larger more powerful nations which surround it. This began with the rise of powerful empires in the surounding lands: Anatolia, Mesopotamia and the Nile Valley. What is now modern Lebanon featuresdin the writings of Homer as well as Old Testament verses. Lebanese cities, especially the seaports were of great importance both in Phoenician and Roman times. Americans and Europeans will be most familar with Biblical references to locations in what is modern Lebanon. Lebanese history is most notable for the diversity of people and religious groups which have been found there. Mountaneous Lebanon has proved to be a inaccessible refuge for a diverse group of people fleeing repression and persecution experienced in other areas of the Middle East. The principal groups in modern Lebanon are: the Maronites Christians (, Greek Orthodox Christians, Shia Muslims, Sunni Muslims, and the Druze The colonial powers with occupied Lebanon (the Ottoman Turks and the for a much shorter period the French) generally permitted a degree of religious liberty which left these religious sects to themselves and permitted a substantial degree of self government. The early years as an independent nation began a tradition of tolerance and diversity under the National Pact. This gradually deteriorated with the arrival of the Palistinian Liberation Organization (PLO) and the outbreak of civil war. Today Lebanon is tinderbox controlled by religious based militias.


Early homonoids moving out of Africa and into central Europe had to pass through the Levant. There is evidence of human habitation in Lebanon dating back to the dawn of humanity (around 50,000 BC). Arcaeologists have found evidence of pre-historic tool making in caves along the coast of Lebanon. Thus we know that vLebanon was inhabited all through all the classic stages of human development: Paleolithic, Neolithic, the bronze, and the iron ages. Both Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon people were making flint tools in this region (around 50,000 BC). Evidence of village life as a result of the domestication of plants and animals shows the onset of the Neolithic Revolution (about 10,000 BC). Developments in Mesopotamia and Egypt would affected life throughout the Levant. There is evidence of coastal settlment (9000 BC). The earliest important settlment that has been found is Byblos.

Ancient History

The recorded ancient history of modern Lebanon predates the Bible and begins with the Phoenicians (about 4000 BC). What is now Lebanon was invading by a secession of powerful empires. The Phoenicians did not have the strength to fight off these powerful land empires, but maintained a maritime trading empire. Lebanon and the Levant in general was on the faultline between the powerful Egyptian and Hittite Empires. One of the great battles of the ancient world was fought jusy north of Lebanon--Qadesh (1274 BC). The battle was essentially a draw leaving the Levant an area contested by the two empires. As these empires declines the Assyrians, Babylonians, and then the Persians dominated the area. Americans and Europeans will be most familar with Biblical references to locations in what is modern Lebanon.


The first well studied people who inhabited modern Lebanon were the Canaanites, a people mentined extensively in the Bible. The Canaanites are better known as the Phoenicians, the Greek term for the people. The Greek word phoinos meant �red� referring to the unique purple dye that the Phoenicians produced from murex seashells. The early Phoenicians were of semetic origins and an early seafaring people who settled islands and coastal areas in the easterm Mediterrean. The Phoenicians dominated Crete whoch was an early center known as the Minoan civilization (2000-1200 BC). As the Mycenaean Greeks civilization expanded in the Agean, the center of Phoenician civilization shifted to the mainland of the eastern Mediterrean, especially in the area of what is now Lebanon. Archaeologists have found abundant evidence for related coastal cities and heavily forested mountain strong points (around 4000 BC). These people generally referred to themselves on the basis of the local city where they lived, but referred to their nation as Canaan. They dominated the narrow East-Mediterranean coast and the parallel strip mountains of Lebanon. The Canaanites traded cedar timber, olive oil and wine from Byblos for metals and ivory from Egypt (2800 BC). The Coastal cities were conquered by the Amorites (about 2000 BC). The Egyptians conquered the area (about 1800 BC). The Canaanites managed to achieve independece (about 1200 BC). The Phoenicians were the first great naval power. They mastered the art of navigation and ship building and as a result dominated the Mediterranean and the maritime trade there for more than 500 years. They demonstrated considerable skill in textiles, carving ivory, as well as metal and glass working. The most imporant Phoenician city was Tyre. Other cities included Sidon, Byblos, Berytus (Beirut). The Phoenicians established trading colonies throughout the Mediterrean, including Tripoli, Arvad Island-City, Baalbek and Caesarea as well as Cyprus, Rhodes, Malta, Sicily, Sardinia, Marseilles, Cadiz, and Carthage Around 1000 BC). The most important colony proved to be Carthage which develped into a Meditewrranean superpower. The Phoeniciansy developed trade routes that extended into Europe, Western Asia, and Africa. Phoenician ships were the first to circumnavigate Africa, a thousand years before those of the Portuguese. Perhaps their greatest accomplishment was inventing the alphabet which influenced scripsts throughout the Mediterranean and Niddle East. The Greeks adopted the 22-letter alphabet from the Phoenicians which led to the Latin letters now used in the West. The Phoenicians managed to adjust to successive land powers who conquered the Levant or parts of it. They thus managed to continue their maritim trade and a fegree of political independence.

Invading Empires

Lebanon was on the fault line between the Egyptian and Hittites Empires. One of the great battles of the ancirnt world was fought jusy north of Lebanon--Qadesh (1274 BC). The battle was essentially a draw leaving the Levant an area contested by the two empires. The Phonecians fought a number of small groups such as the Amorites and Hebrews for control of the inland vallies and trade routes. The Assyrians invaded Phoenicia from the west (875 BC) Major Phoenician cities (Byblos, Tyre and Sidon) over time rebelled and as a result were destroyed by the Assyrians. This brought total destruction to the cities in response. The Babylonians were the next western land power to conquer tThe Phoenicians (585 BC). Phoenician cities rebelled and Tyre was again destroyed. The Persians occupied the Levant region including Phoenicia (%38 BC). The Phoenician navy became an important addition to Persia which was primarily a land power. The Phoenician were thus an important ally during the Greco-Persian wars (490-449 BC). The Phoenicians subsequentlt revolted against the heavy tribute imposed by the Persians.

Alexander and the Greeks (333-64 BC)

Alexander with his small Greek Army defeated the masive Persian Army of Emperor Darios (333 BC). Before completing the conquest of Persia, Alexander decided to seize the rich Persian province of Egypt and the Levant. The Phoenician cities were in no position to resist. They accepted Alexander�s suzerainty. Tyre was an exception, As a island city with a navy, they felt they could resist and achieve indepoendence. When Alexander arrive off Tyre, he expressed an interest in making a sacrifice to the Tyre god Melkurt in the main Tyre temple. Tyre refused and Alexander responded by beginning a seige. Tyre resisted for 6 months. Alexander finally after 6 months defeated the Tyre navy and built a causeway vto the city. Alexander and his successors left a Helanistic imprint on the Levant. The Phoenicians after centuries of foreign trade and commerce were a cosmopolitan civilization amenable to incorportsating foreign nfluences.

Rome/Byzantium (64 BC-636 AD)

Rome incorporated Phoenicia into their Empire (64 AD). As part of the Roman Empire and Pax Romana, a trading people like the Phoenicians prospered. Both commercial economic and intellectual activities flourished in Lebanon during the Pax Roman. Rome granted thed inhabitants of the principal Phoenician cities of Byblos, Sidon and Tyre Roman citizenship. The Phoenicians were not only traders, but had highly develped industries, including pottery, glass and purple dye industries. They also benefitted from trade between Rome and other Mediterranran ports and the inland areas to the west, Syria and Mesopotamia as well as areas beyond, Persia and India. Important goods included cedar, perfume, jewelry, wine and fruit. The economic prospeity expeienced in Phoenicia resulted in expanding urban settlment and helped finance the construction of temples and palaces. A noted first School of Law in history was built. A network of paved roads connected the major cities. As a esult, today in Lebanon there are impressive ruins of temples and monuments from the Roman era. The most important is Baalbek. Phoenicia because of its location along side Palestine had Jews among the population. Before the Jewish revolt and Disapora, Phoenicia was one of the few areas with Jewish populations. (There were jews in Mespotamia and Persia, nut they were less connected witn Jews in Palestine,). Thus Lebnon was one of the first areas outside Palestine to be affected by the Jesus movement. The Bible in fact records that the first non-Jewish woman who accepted Christianity was a Phoenician. And of course St. Pul was converted on the road to Damascus. Saint Peter left for Rome from a Phoenician port. When the Roman Empire divided, Phoenicia and the rest of the Levant became part of the Eastern Empire which evolved into Byzantium. Most Phoenicians became Christians. Saint Maroun found a refuge in the northern mountains of Lebanon. Maronite Christianity developed in Lebanon. This caused problems with ther Byzantine authories and established Greek Orthodox Church. Some authors ewport a nationalist sentiments in Mount Lebanon and the Phoenician coast and the beginning of the name Lebanon for the entire sarea. The population of the mountons began to increase, in part because Byzantine authorities found it more difficilt to enforce their authority againstthe Maronites and Marada. They were joined by the Aramaic/ Assyrians and Cheldanites who were also fleeing persecution.

Arab Caliphate (7th Century)

The Prophet Muhammed received the fianl revelation from the Angel Jibril in the Arabian Peninsula. That revelation would inspire the Islamic faith. Fired by Islam, the Arabs burst out of the Arabian Desert to challenge the then expansive Christian Byzantine Empire. The first of many major battles between Muslims and Christians. The Arabs at the Battle of Yarmuk (636) in Syria decisively defeated a Byzantine Army. This was the beginning of a major religious shift in which Islam gradually replaced Christianity in its Middle Eastern birth place. This effectively ended Byzantine rule in the Levant, including Lebanon. Caliph Umar appointed Muawiyah Ibn Abu Sufyan as governor of Syria (640). He proceeded to garrisoned troops along the Lebanese coast. Rge Arabs did not actively campaign in the moutains, thus Lebanon developed a kind of defacto autonomny within the Arab Caliphate. It was the only region within the Caliphate that the population remained stasunhly Christian. There were even Chritain military raids. Mauwyah even paid financial tribute to the Lebanese to stop the raiding (670 AD). Muawyah sought the assistance of Lebanese ship builders help build a navy. The Lebanese built the ships and helped sail the vessels. This enabled Arab troops to conquer Cyprus (649). The Lebanese over time were influenced by Arab culture. They also played a role in scholarship of the Caliphate. The Maronites and the Aramaic plasyed a major role in tranlating classical Greek rexts into Arabic. This played a major role in the development of Arabic science. The Umayyads made no msajor effort to convert the Lebanese to Islam. The Abbasids replaced the Umayyads (750). They pursued a more saggressive policy toward Lebanon, trating it as conquered country. The result was a seies of revolts. The most important was the rebellion of the Lebanese mountaineers (759). The prince of Tyre proclaimed independence from the Abbasids (10h century). His rule was later ended by the Fatimids. A group which sought refuge in Lebanon was a small Christian sect called Melchites who becme known as Greek Catholics. The Druze, a non-confoeming Islamic sect, also sought refuge in Mount Lebanon (about 1020).

Crusades (1095-1291)

The Crusaders after taking Jerusalem, turned north and moved up the Lebanese coast. Tripoli surrendered (1109). Beirut and Sidon gave in (1110). Tyre resisted but in turn fell after a protracted siege (1124). The Crusaders left towers, castles and churches along the coast and in the mountains. During this period the Shia Muslims began to move into Lebanon from Syria, Iraq and Arabian Peninsula where they found a less hostile environment.

Mamlukes (1282-1516)

The Crusaders were one group of foreign invaders. Amother were the Mongols who sacked Baghdad (1258). They destroyed the Calophate. Controling mountaneous Lebanon proved difficult. This was at the far extreme of the Mongol adcance. A Mongol force, but not the main armt moved west to conquer Egypt. The Mamlukes defeated the Mongols Battle of Ain Jalut (1260). This permitted the Mamluks not only to gain control of Egypt, but much of the Levant, including Lebanon. The Shias and Druze rebelled while the Mamluks were busy fighting the Crusaders and Mangols (12??). They returned later and crushed the rebellion (1309). The Mamluks ruled Egypt and the Levant for more than two centuries. Beirut became a major trading center between the Middle East and Europe. As a esult of the prosperous commercial activity and relatively tolerannt intellectual environment, intellectual life flourished in Lebanon.

Ottoman Empire (1516-1918)

The expanding Ottoman Empire finally seized control of Constantinople (1492). They then expanded futher into Eastern Europe as well as the Arab lands of the Middle East (16th century). Ottoman Sultan Bayezid II (reigned 1481-1512) gave considerable attention to his navy and he used it to extend the reach of Ottoman power in the Mediterranean. His navy joined by the North African corsairs managed to displace Venice and Genoa as the dominate naval power in the eastern and central Mediterranean. Selim I known to history as Selim the Grim drove south conquering the Arab lands of Lebano, Syria, and Palestine which had been rukled by the Egyptian Mamluks (1516). They were made provinces of the Ottoman Empire. Continued his campaign, Selim drove the last of the Mamluk sultans from his Cairo throne (1517). The institutions of the Mamluk Sultanate continued under the Ottomans, although there were institutional changes. The Ottomon approach in Lebanon and many other areas by ruling through local leaders. As a result Lebanon achieved a degree of autonomy which varied over time.

World War I (1914-18)

World War I was primarily fought primarily in Europe, but after the Ottoman Enpire entered the War a Midddle Eastern campaign developed, in fact two. One was fought in Egyopt-Palestine. The other was fought in Mesopotamia. These were areas to the east and west of Lebanon. The war resulted with the destruction of the great European empires, including the Ottoman Empire. This enabled the victorious Allies to redraw the map of Europe and the Middle East. This of course affected the Arab Lands including Lebanon. The Ottoman Empire ceased to exist, but the Young Turks retained control of the Army. And with the Kemalist revolution, the Turks retained control of the Anatolian Turkish heartlands and presented a challenge to the Allied occupation forces. They Kemalists created the Turkish Republic, but made no effort to retrieve the Arab provinces in Mesopotamia and the Levant. These areas were divided between Britain and France. As a result of the League of Nations, the Levant areas occupied by Britain and France were turned into 'Mandates'. That meant that is was the responsibility of the colonial power to prepare the mandates as soon as possible for independence. That was a legal status different than a pre-World War I colony.

Former Levant Ottoman Areas: Disorder and Violence

Following the War the future of the Ottoman Arab Lands was in doubt. The Arabs in Palestine appear to have generally accepted British rule. The situation in Syria was more in doubt and a conflict developed between the French and Arab forces -- the Franco-Syrian War. The Egyptian Expeditionary forces of Edmund Allenby after defeating the Ottoman forces in Palestine entered Damascus (September 30, 1918). The Hasemite Dynasty from Saudi-Arabia King Faisal attempted to establish the Arab Kingdom of Syria. Faisal with Allenby's approval announced the establishment of an Arab constitutional government in Damascus (October 5, 1919). Negotiations with French Prime-Minister Clemencau did not go well (January 1920). The Alawite rose up (July 1919). The Arabs began attacking French forces throughout Syria. The Arab Syrian Congress met to declare Faisal the King of Syria (March 19, 1920). The Nananu Revolt began in the north (April 1920). The Arab forces were mostly irregulars that had fought the Ottomans with the British aided by local bedouins. The British and French refused to recognize Feisal, The Laeague of Nations called the San Remo Conference (April 1920). Several attacks were launched by the Arab militias. King Faisal not wanting a war with France surrendered (July 14, 1920). A follower Yusuf al-'Azma refused to surrender and with a group of poorly armed irregulars fought the well-armed French Army of the Levant at the Battle of Maysalun (July 24). The border between Syria and Palestine at the time and the fighting spilled over into northern Palistine--the Gaillee. It was there that one of the Arab actions took place at Tel Hai when Arabs militias from nearby villages attempted to seize a small Jewish outpost in the northern Galilee (March 1). Historians consider it to be the beginning of the Arab-Jewish conflict in Palestine. The Jewish settlers including the women were armed. It was first notable action by self defense forces that Jewish settlers had begun to organize. Soon after the situarion stabilized, the British partioned Palestine and turned the eastern area over to Hshemites, Abdullah I bin al-Husseinthe second of three sons of Hussein bin Ali, Sharif and Emir of Mecca. It became Trans-Jordon, essentially Palestine beyond the Jordan. Abdullah had playd a key role with Lawrence in the Arab Revolt (1916-18). Jews were excluded from Trans Jordan.

French Mandate

The British and French signed the Sykes-Picot Agreement (February 1916). They essentially divided the Arab provinces of the Ottoman Empire into areas of influence. France was given Lebanon and Syria as their area of influence. The Balfour Declaration concerning a Jewish Homeland in Palestine further complicated the situation (1917). The Allies defeated the Ottoman Empire in World War I (1914-18). In the last year of the War the British aided by the Arab Revolt defeated the Ottoman Army in Palestine and occupied Jerusalem. They then droce north and seized Damascus. The Ottomans withdrew from the entire Levant (1918). The League of Nations granted France a mandate for both Lebanon and Syria (1920). General Gouraud, head of the French troops in the Levant. At this time the State of Greater Lebanon is proclaimed, made up of the former autonomous province of Mount Lebanon, proclaimed the provinces of north Lebanon, south Lebanon and the Biqa which was historically associated with Syria. The Lebanese Representative Council approved a Constitution and declared a Lebanese Republic (1926). A constitution was adopted establishing a democratic republic with a parliamentary system of government. With the fall of France in World War II, Vichy France is organized and French authorities in Lebanon recognize Vichy (June 1940). The British and Free French occupy Lebanon and turned authority back over to France (June 1941). The Lebanese declare independence (November 1941). This essentially ended the League Mandate.

Independence (1944)

Free French authorities agreed to transfer power to the Lebanese government (November 1943). Independence Day is November 22. The Lebanese government assumed power (January 1944). The foundations for of the nodern state of Lebanon was an unwritten National Covenant (March 1943). The Convenant estanlished Lebanon as an independent Arab country with ties to the West but which cooperates with other Arab states while remaining neutral. The 1932 census which recorded Christians as 54 percent of the population was used as the basis for allocating the distribution of seats in then Chamber of Deputies. (The Chamber was later renamed the National Assembly.) The basic ratio between Christians and Muslims in the Chamber of Deputies was set at 6 to 5. The same ratio was subsequently extended to other public offices. The President is to be a Maronite Christian, the Prime Minister a Sunni Muslim, and the Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies a Shi'i Muslim. Lebanon became a founding member of the League of Arab states (1945). Three presidents were appointed by the French: Alfred Naccash, Ayyub Tabet, and Petro Trad). Two presudents were elected Emile Eddeh was the second one. The country became a member of the United Nations. French troops withdrawl was finally completed (December 31, 1946).

Switzerland of the East (1941-70)

It was not until World War II that Lebanon became fully independent. Once the tide of battle turned, the Free French proceeded to grant idependence (1943). Until this time France unilateraly suspended the Constitution whenever it experienced problems. With the departure of the French, this was no longer possible. Beshara el-Khouri was elected the first President of independent Lebanon. President Beshara el-Khouri called on a Moslem Sunnite, Ryad el-Solh to serve as primeminister and form a Cabinet of Ministers. These two leaders helped craft the National Pact, a verbal agreement never formally established by the government. The National Pact defined Lebanon as an independent country with an "Arabic aspect", but not an Arabic country. The president was to be a Christian Maronite, the primemMinister a Moslem Sunnite, and the president of the parliament a Moslem Shi'ite. All the different religious comminities were to be representefd in the cabinet. The importance of the positionoffered were tied to the relative size of the religious communities. Lebanon unlike the other countries in the region would not have one official religion. All religions would be recognized and represented. Lebanon's civil law was not entirely secular. The civil law allowed for the use of religious laws over the members of that religious community alone and not imposed on others. Here the major religious law was Muslim Sharia Law. The different religious communities lived in relative peace after independence and the departure of the French. Political power was divided between Christians, Shia and Sunni Muslims. In the relatively stable envirinmrnt, the Lebanese developed a thriving economy based on business services -� banking and finance, transport and trade facilities � for other Arab countries. Lebanon was the only Arab country to achieve economic success without oil. The Lebanese economy was fueled by the vigor of its entrepreneurs and not just pumping oil. Lebanon did benefitted from the oil wealth that flowed into the region. Beirut in particula experienced a period of prosperity fueled by 'Petro-Dollars' and became an important financial center. The Arab oil countries used Lebanese banks and financeers. Lebanese engineers and businessmen working in the Gulf (Persin Gulf) countries sent home their wages. Lebanon was referred to as the Switzerland of thec East. Lebanon was more diverse tham the Arab countries of the region. Not only did the popultion include Christiand and Druze, but the Muslim population ws divided. Lebanon becamne a rare country in the region where diversity was accepted. The instability in surrounding countries caused an influx of immigration from neighboring countries, in part individuald facing religious and political persecution. Tthousands of skilled laborers, entrepreneurs and intellectuals sought refuge in Lebnon. In addition, Lebanon�s democratic traditions, attachment to freedom of speech and expression and its educated population enabled the Republic to become the cultural, academic and medical center of the region. The National Pact was an informal arrangement. It required the cooperation ofthe different communitie. Problems surfced (1958). Gradually there was less and less commitment to compromise and tolertion. This was epecially true with the arrival of the Palestine Liberation Organization (1971).

Civil War (1970-82)

The relatively stable political system established by the Nationsl Convnant made possible a prosperous ecomomy which prevailed in Lebanon until the 1970s. The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) attempted to seize control of Jordan as part of what has been called Black Seprember (1971). The Arab Legion, Jordan's army, stood behind the King and domestic tribes. After a bloody fight, the Jordanians expelled the PLO (1971). The PLO established itself in Lebanon with the tacit agreement of the Lebanese who were persuing Arab solidarity. This proved to be a dreadul mistake. The influx of a large new community which did not buy into the Lebanese power sharing arrangement upset the fragile Lebanese compact. The PLO had a well-armed military wing which had almost seized control of Jordan which had a well-trained and equipped army. Lebanon did not have such a fiorce. The Lebanese Army was less well led and trained and divided by its various sectarian components. Tragicaly, the fragilke National Pact brokedown under the strain (1975). The result was a destructive 6-year civil war between right-wing Christian militias and Muslims, both Lebanese Muslims and new Palestinian arrivals. This included first the Falange and the southern militia led by Saad Haddad. Later the Christian forces wee led by General Michel Aoun. The Christians were pitted against Muslim and Palestinian forces. The most importnt Muslim forces were were initially the Amal movement and subsequently the more radical, Iranian-inspired Shi'ia Hezbollah organization. With the outbreak of fighting, the capital split along the �Green Line�, dividing the city. The Christians controlled the eastern sector of the city and the Muslim the western sector. The counyry's central Government all but broke down, despite repeated attempts by the Lebanese (but not the Plestinians) to find a new political solution. As aesult of Palestinia attacks across the border, Israel intervened (1982).

Israeli Intervention (1982-90)

The PLO's presence in Lebanon and terror attacks across the border ultimately led to the Israeli interventiom (1982). The Israelis drove most PLO guerrillas out of Lebanon. The Isrealis faced a well armed Syrian military on their flank. While the Syruan Army did not confront the isrealis dorectly, they did commit their modern Soviet equipped air force, including the much feared Mig-25 Foxbat. The Isrealis used American F-4 Phatoms to attack ground targets and the new F-15 Eagle to fly cover. The results were starteling. The Israelis shot down some 80 Soviet-built Syrian aircraft without a sinle loss in air combat. The Israelis reached Beirut, but failed to install a Christian-dominated government in power. The Israeli occupation gradually became a target of juch international criticism. Following the election of a coalition government in Tel Aviv, the Israelis deided to withdraw (early-1985) to a �security zone� along the southern border. The Israeli Defence Forces (IDF) supported Christian militias which became the South Lebanon Army (SLA). Hezbollah which grew from the radicalization of the Shia population, bore the brunt of the subsequent fighting against the Christian militias and the Israelis. With Iranian and Syrian support it steadily grew to be a significant political force in Lebanon. The Isreali Security Zone became the scene of a protracted attritional conflict between the IDF/SLA and Hezbollah fighters which only came to an end when the Israeli government decided to pull their troops out of southern Lebanon (1989). Without IDF support, the SLA collapsed). The Syrian army in the rest of Lebanon proved to be the ultimate power broker. They enforced a political settlement. This process began with the election of a National Assembly (November 1989). President Ren� Daowad was assasinated. A new President, Elias Hrawi, became one of a new troika including Prime Minister Salim al-Hoss and the speaker of the parliament, Hussein Husseini.

Syrian Occupation (1991-2000)


The Iranian Mulahs after seizing powe began to use Shi'a populations as a firce in foreign policy. They financed the founding of Hezbollah-the Party of God. They funded 1,500 Revolutionary Guards to train Hezbollah fighters. With cintinued Iranian funding and weapinrt, Hezbollah has become a nahor force. The Lebanese Goverbment can make no decisiin not approved by Hezbollah. In cintrast, Hezbollah is unrestrained by the Lebanese Government. Hezbollah was ordered by Tehran bombed the U.S. Embassy amnd the U.S. Matine barracks in Beirut--killing 258 Americans (1983). Teran also ordered Hezcollah to bomn Jewish targets in Argentina (1900s). Hezbollah operatives brag aboutbit. Hezbollah alai targets Lebanese. They used an anazing 2.200 t od TNT to assainarw firmer Lebanese Prime-minister Rafic Hariri and 21 others in a Beirut motorcade (2005). This was determied bu a U,.M. Special Tribunal. Hezbohhh managed to drag Lebanin into a 34-f=day war with Israel. Over a thousand Lebanese were killed with huge damage to infrastructure (2006). Hezbollah forced the Lebanese Gobernment to sign a power-sharing agreement, effectively giving them veto power (2008). This has essentially paralized the Lebanese Government. The Trimp Afministraion's ecomomoc sanctions mean that The Mulahs have less cash to send to Hezbollah, but along wit the Maduro-dictatorship in Venezuela, a partnership with Latin Amerivan drug lords and other international criminal gangs produce significant income. [Ottolenghi] Hezbollah continues its aggresive policy toward Israel. Hezbollah now has 150,000 missles aimed at Israel proboded or funded by Iran. They are stored near schools, ,osques, and ither cibilam sites, so amy attacls on the missles vam be uhsed fir propaganda purposes. Hezbollah has not lainched a major missle attack becaise Israel demonstrated in 2006 the massive retaliation thatbwould result.

Modern Lebanon

Cedar Revolution (2005)


Ottolenghi. Emanueke. Foundatiomn for Defense of Democracoes (FDD). A lsw enforcement operation to break up yjr narco-terrorist alliances was stopped ny President Obama to help gain the acceotance of th Milahs for the nuclear deal.


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