* turnung point Japanese nationalist outrage early-1920s

Turning Point: Japanese Nationalist Outrage (Early-1920s)

Figure 1.--This snapshot was taken by a young English sailor (November 1919), Ernest Percy Cumber (1902- ), Boy Firt Class. He was serving on the 'HMS Hawkins', a newly commisioined heavy cruiser assigned to the China Station. The seamen on the 'Hawkins' (shown by their tallies) seems to be having an outing with Japanese sailors and children. Notice the children are still wearing kimonos rather than Western dress, but with school caps. A happy Royal Navy image. The Anglo-Japanese Treaty was still in force. The photograph was taken in Endoshima, a small island neat Kamakura close to Tokyo. Much of Enoshima was purchased by Samuel Cocking, a British merchant, in his Japanese wife's name (1880). He developed a power plant and extensive botanical gardens including a very large greenhouse. It is now a populoar tourist attractiion..

The Anglo-Japanese Alliance (1902) was a departure for both Britain and Japan. British policy in the late-19th century at the time was 'Splendiud Isolation' that had dominated British diplomacy after the Naspoleonic Wars, but is especially associated with the late-19th century, despite the growing German challenge. The primary purpose was the mutual concern toward the Russians. The Alliance beefitted both countries. The British relationship was a fctor in the subsequent Japanese victory in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-05). And the Japanese supported the Brutish in World War I (1914-18). There were discenters, both within and outside the Empire. Australians and others were not all that happy with the arrangements. Neither were the Americans. And concerns were growing in Japan, not so much with the British, but toward the Americans, but many Japanese did not destinguish between America and Britain which had the same language and looked alike. Problems began with the American immigration policy and than President Roosevelt's who mediated an end to the Russian War. Many Japanese nationalists believed that Roosevelt prevented them from obtaining the spoils they believed that they deserved. Than America and Britsin forced them to backdown from the Twenty-One Demands they desired to impose on China. The Japanese were offended by their treatment at the Versailles Peace Conferencer (1919). In particular they expected support from the British. The Americans further incened the Japanese by demanding they withdraw from Siberia after World War I (1922). Perhaps the greatest greviance of all, espcilly for nasval officers, was that that Japanese did not receive parity with the American and British fleets. Many officers considered the Treaties a humiliating insult to their national honor. Many natioinalists advocated an aggressive preparation for war, although this was their mindset even before the Washington Treaties. Others such as Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto insisted that war with America and Britian would be suicidal. Because of America's superior industrial and technical capability, Yamamoto argued that Japan could never win a naval arm's race. The Washington Trasty thus was advantageous to the Japanese. Yamamoto was for a time targeted for assasination. He was, however, appointed commander of the Imperial Navy. He was an inovative strategist and in particular prompted the naval air wing. After the Washington Treaty, Britain how to make a decision. They could continue their relationship with Japan or develop a new relationship with America that had begun when America entered World War I on the Allied side (1917). Britain's policy since Trafalgar was to maintain a naval force ar least equal to the two other largest navies. The cost of World War I and the rise of the United States meant that this was no longer possible. And the British estblishmenbt wuth some unease decided to accept the rise of American naval power. The Treaty was terminated by the British (1921-23). The Japanese were offened, another factor in the series of grevianses felt by the Japanese.



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Created: 4:00 AM 9/26/2016
Last updated: 4:00 AM 9/26/2016