America's entry into World War I was the deciding factor in the War. Here it was the American infantry that brike the dead lock on the Western Front. The Royal Navy and French blockade of Germany played a major role in undermining the German and Autrian economies and civilian morale. This was largely accomplished before America entered the War. America had the third largest navy in the world, second only to the British and German navies. The 300 warships of the American Navy only added to the effectiveness of the Allied blockade, but were primarily deployed in the North Atlantic to guard the sea lanes between America and the Britain and France. Especially important was guarding the troopships that delivered the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) to France. A few Navy vessels were deployed in the Mediterranean, but the bulk of the Navy was deploted in the North Atlantics.
Only a few Navy vessels were sunk during the War. The cruiser San Diego sunk by mines layed by a German U-boat off New York. Two Navy destroyers protecting convoys were sunk by U-boats.
It was German U-boats and the German decesion to resume unrestricted sunmarine warfare that brought America into the War. The German U-boat campaign proved unsuccessful because of the convoy system imnplemented by the Royal Navy and the invention of ASDAC (SONAR). The United States had a small sunmarine force of 30 ships. The U.S. Navy established its Submarine School at the main Submarine Base in New London, Connecticut (January 19, 1917). The AmeriWan submarines would play little role in World War I, but the force would play a major role in World War II.
As Europe exploded into war, the United States made little effort to expand its very small army. The Navy was an entirely different matter. The U.S. Navy was one of the world's most powerful navies and on the brink of becoming the first navy to challenge the Royal Navy's dominnce in more than a century. President Roosevely's massive naval construction program had put the U.S. Navy on the map which he showed off in the global voyage of the Great White Fleet (1907-09). And then the United States after the British launch of Dreadnought cointinued building nabal vessels. Naval analysts rank it third or fourth, behand Britain, France, and perhaps Germany, depending on what metric was used. The United States before the War had given the greatest emphaasis to building capital ships, like other national navies. Submarines and destroters were given relatively little attention, although this would soon change.
William Sowden Sims has been called the most impactful officer in the history og the U.S. Navy. This id not because of any great battle victory, but rather because of tireless efforts to improve ship design, fleet tactics, and naval gunnery. He was born in Port Hope, Ontario (1858). His American engineer father was working in Canada and Simms spebnt most of his childhood there. The family returned to America (1872). Sims was acceoted at the Naval Academy (1876). He graduated (1880) and served at sea until for 17 years (1897). He wrote a highly respected navigation text book. He then was podted as a naval attaché to the U.S. embassies in Paris and St. Petersburg (1897-1900). His observations of foreign navies was a revevlation. He became convinced of American naval inferiority as a time that the United States was about to embark on a major naval exoansion program. The U.S. Navy, despite its Spanish-American War victories, was wiefully behind big-power standards. Is at this time he learned of a new Vritish gunnery technique -- continuous-aim firing. The Navy ignored his gunnery reports so he erilte to President Roosevelt who was in the process of building the Great White Fleet. The President brought him to Washington as inspector of naval target practice. Sims oversaw remarkable improvements in the state of Amrican naval gunnery before returning to sea duty. Sims was an Anglophile and his career was hurt during the Taft Administratioibn when he made some blunt pro-British renanrks which were peceived, for good reason, as anti-German. Sims was promoted to rear admiral and became head of the Naval War College (1917). After the United States entered World War. President Wilson had him promoted to vice admiral and selected him to command naval forces in Europe. (More or less the countetpart to Gen. Pershing.) It is unclear what prompted the President. Perhaps it was the lingering importance of President Roosevelt or the fact that any American nacal commander had to work closely with the British Royal Navy. He set up his headquarters in London dubbed 'The Flagship'. He had like most admirals been a battleship proponent, but quickly saw the need for destroyers. From Londion he launched a two front war against both the Germans and the Wilson Administration. Sims played an important role in develpping the vital Allied convoy system.
Sims worked smoothly with his British counterpart, Admiral Sir Lewis Bayly. They developed a highly effective convoy system. [Trask] The convoy system along with the British invention of ASDAC (SONAR) substantially reduced shipping losses. And he refused to follow Wison's desire to maintain American military independence and enbedded American units into the Royal Navy. Not only that but he ignored the Presudent's naval strategy ideas. President Wilson thoiught he knew more abiout naval stratefu than the Royal Navy. Sims also criticised the naval policies of the President and Secretary Danniels. [Little] There was talk of a court martial, but the Presidenbt decided against it. For his part, Sims after the War continued his effirt to get Daniels fired. A headline grabbing feud developed betwwn Sims and Secretary Daniels leading to a partisan Congressioinal investigation. Warchihg all of this turmoil was future President Franklin Roioisevet who at the time was Under-Secreary of the Navy and was was less publically trying to get Daniels fired.
After the onset of the War, both Germany and Britain violated the rights of neutral shipping. This meant primarily American shipping as the largest, most important neutral country. The British blockade prevented Amerucan trade with Germny, an important ore-War trading partner. THe British action, however, seemed more civilized. The Royal Navy surface fleet could stop American ships and turn them back without sinking them. Thus there was no loss of life. German U-boats seemed more ruthless and uncivilized. This was the reaction to the German sinking of the Lusitania, a prestigious British passenger liner (1915). A German U-boat torpedoed the British luxury oceanliner Lusitania off Ireland (1915). Large numbers of Americans were onboard and killed. Americans were aghast. President Wilson's foreign affairs adviser Col. Edward House was in London and cabled Wilson that now was the time to declare war. Wilson replied that "America was to proud to fight." He insisted that some values went beyond war. Former President Theodore Roosevelt called him a "coward". While seeking to avoid being drawn into the war, President Wilson insisted on Americans' right to trde with the Allies. He also demanded the Germans restrict U-boat operations. He held Germany to 'strict accountability' for its U-boat operations. The British restrictions on American shipping were much more palitable to the United States because of all the war orders from the Allies. American trade with the Allies tripled to $3 billion annually (1914-16). Both American industry and agriculture benefitted.
The Wilson Administration backed plans to significantly expand the Navy. No measures were made to expand the Army was a different matter. There were several reasons for this. America was now the world's largest industrial power with extensive foreign trade. The British Royal Navy blockade of Germany restricted the rights of neutral shipping to which the United states objected (1914). The German sinking of the Luisitania shocked Americans (1915). And the Japanese declartion of 21 Demands were a direct challenge to America's Open Door Policy (1915). The U.S. Navy had 17 dreadnought and 23 pre-dreadnought battleships. These capital ships were the way the strength of national navies were measured at the time. The Naval Construction Act of 1916 provided for a massive expansion of the Navy. It authorized the construction of 156 new ships. This included 16 capital ships (10 battleships and 6 battle cruisers). There were also to be numerous new cruisers. All of these new vessels were to be laid down (construction began) by mid-1919. The actual numberous are less significant than the fact that these would be modern vessels. This would have meant that by the early-20s that the United States would have the most modern navy in the world. The British even if they won the War would not be able to afford such a massive building program. As the United States became involved in the War, American naval planning ficused on a war in the Western Atlantic and Caribbean. Less attention would be given to destroyers--only 50 were to be built despie all the futor about U-boats. This was a very small fraction in GRT terms of the construction effort. And it bwould be the desroyers that would play the major American naval role in the War.
Military commanders convinced Kaiser Wilhelm to resume unrestricted sunmarine warfare. The Germans seriously under estimated the potential impact of American involvement. Gambling that they could force a decission in the Western Front, the military convinced Kaiser Wilhelm to resume unrestricted sunmarine warfare. This was the critical decision of the War and Kaiser Wilhelm made a catetrophic error. The unrestricted U-boat campaign gained Germany very little. The Kaiser's decesion ranks along with the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor as the most illadvised naval decesions in history. America's entry into World War I was the deciding factor in the War. In the end the British introduced the convoy system and the U-boat camapign failed. The declaration of unrestriucted submarine warfare, however, brought America into the War and it would be the American infantry that would blunt the German 1918 offensive and turn the tide on the Western Front. Without the arrival of the Americans, it is likely that the Germans would have won the war. Here it was the American infantry that broke the dead lock on the Western Front.
American President Woodrow Wilson camaigned for re-election in 1916 with the slogan "He kept us out of war". America at various points tried to negotiate an end to the War. Wilson in a 1917 speech called for a "peace without victory". None of the major European combatants showed much interest in the American efforts. The Britsh were still hopeful that America would join the Allies. Kaiser Wilhelm dimissed Wilson's efforts as unrealistic. The Germans seriously under estimated the potential impact of American involvement. Gambling that they could force a decission in the Western Front, the military convinced Kaiser Wilhelm to resume unrestricted sunmarine warfare. After German U-boats sank five American merchant vessels, President Wilson on asked Congress to Declare War on Germany which was approved April 6. President Wilson's motives are a subject of controversy among historians. The declaration of war was following the declaration of War an explosion of patriotic fervor not seen in America since the Civil war. Large numbers of young men enlisted. Many cities came close to fulfilling their quota within a few months, well before selective Service went into effect (June 5). There wee patriotic celebrations with children dressing up in uniforms and patriotic outfits. Along with the patriotic fervor, a wave of anti-German hysteria spread over America with the declaration of war on Germany. It was far worse than hate crimes against Arab-looking and turbaned individuals after Septenber 11, 2001.
The U.S. Navy rapidly expanded from 80,000 men and 12,000 reservists before the War to a peak of 560,000 men when the War ended (November 1918). The U.S. Navy at the onset of the war was a cruiser navy with a few pre-dreadnoughts and dreadnoughts. The U.S. Navy had no way of resisting British seizure of its shipping in World War I as part of the blockade of Germany. The Naval Construction Act of 1916 set out to change that and the make the U.S. Navy on a par with the British Royal Navy and actually more modern than the Royal Navy. Which of course meant big-gun battleship construction, A less heralded development was major appropriations for two new vessel classes: destroyers and submarines. And it would be the American destroyers that would play the Navy's key role in World War I. The big-gun capital ships were useful in maintainng the emnargo, but the only important fleet engagement, Jutlandm (1916) was fought a year before America entered the War. The German Navy never came out in force again. What the Royal really needed was escorts to assist with the convoy protection. It would take the U.S. Army a year before it went into action on the Western from. The U.S. Navy's Destroyer Flotilla Mo. 9 was committed to the Western approacches within weeks of America entering the War. And not only were the existing destroyers committed, but the United States launched a massive naval building program, churming out 275 destroyers and 400 sunmarine chasers which played a major role in defeating the German U-boat menace. American submarines were not needed, but would play an outsized role in World War II. After the completion of these vessels, no navy ever again would sucessfully interfere with American shipping. Germany and Japan would attempt to do so with disaterous results in Wirkld War II. The United States Army was totally unprepared for the War. As a result, the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) fought the Germans with mostly Allied (Britain and French weapons). Only the Navy had a force in existence which could be immediately deployed.
World War I navies were assessed in terms of the number of battleships which as a result were considered to be capital or the most important ships. Early American battleships incliding the ships built in Presudent Roosevelt massive constructiion program (1902-08) had a variety of naval artillery with varying calibre and range. After the battle of Tsushima (1906), it was clear to naval planners that the armament of a battleship should be primarily the big guns. HMS Dreadnought was the embodiment of this principle. American had begun building a modern fleet including capital ships. The U.S. Navy quickly shifted construction to the Dreadnought types. At the time of World War I the U.S. Navy has some 36 capital ships. The main American battle fleet was not deployed to Europe even hough further action was expected in the North Sea. The Germans, however, never came. The German High Seas fleet after Jutland (1916) kept their high seas fleet in port. The United States like the British had begun shifting the fleet over to from coal to oil-fired propulsion, but still relied heavily on coal. The Bitish were having trouble supplying their own oil-fired ships. So the only capital American ships deployed to the North Sea were the older coal-fired ships. American admirals were hesitant to divide the Americamn battle fleet, but eventually dispatched Battle Ship Division Nine to join the British Grand Fleet in the North Sea. They were based at Scappa Flow in the Orkney Islands. Division Nine began with four older coal-fired ships, but the composition changed over time. It participated in Grand Fleet exercises as well as Scandanvian convoy escort duties and helped to lay the Northern Mine Barage designed to stop U-boats from reaching the Atlantic. There were unsuccessful German U-boat attacks. Division Six was dispatched to assist with Atlantic convoy protection. It consisted of three ships and was based Berehaven, Bantry Bay, Ireland. Notable in Division Six was the brand new BB-37 USS Oklahoma a Nevada-class battleship whuch was the first American class of oil-burning dreadnoughts. The other American battleships patrolled off the American East Coast as well as engaging in convoy escort duty. They also served as as training platforms for the crews which were deployed in European waters. BB-3 USS Oregon was deployed to the Pacific and supported the U.S. expeditionary force in Siberia. After the War the battleships were used to help bring the AEF home.
The first class of U.S. Navy cruisers were the lightly armored Monthomery-cass cruisers, acrually a glorrified gun boat (1888). Early vessels in the days of sails were cimmonkly bcalled frifates. The Montogomery-class still had auxikery sail power. All but one was decommisiioned bedore World War I. The United States had 37 cruisers at the outbreal of World War. the ame number at the time it enbtered the War. It added only 3 vruisers during the War.
The U.S. Navy World War I cruiser dleet included some aging vessels like the USS Baltimore (1890). Some had been authorized in the kate 1870s, buut bit funded by Comgress until the 1890s. This included the armored cruisers USS Brooklyn (1896) and fast armoted cruiser USS New York (1893). President Roosevelt's naval construction program had added some greatly improved criisers like USS Pennstylvatai (1905). There were a range of other descriotions that fir vinto the cruiser category, 'scout crusier warship--the IUSS Salem (1808). and the steek-hulled gunbiat warshio'--USS Yorktown 1889).
The destroyer like the submarine in World War I were brand new vessel types. The progentator (torpedo boats) first appeared in the very late-19th century as the torpedo began to develop as a powerful weapon. Interestingly they were first used in the Chilean Civil War (1891) and Sino-Japanese War (1894). European navies began building more advanced torpedo boats, thus the birth of the destroyer. The concept was that a small inexpenive ship armed with torpedoes could sink a massive very expensive battleship with a huge crew. Generally speaking, national navies do not learn from such experiences until their own vessels are threatened or sunk. And this occuured during the Spanish-American War at the seige of Santiago in Cuba (1898). The Spanish Navy was outgunned in the War, but two Spanish destroyers threatened America battleships. The Spanish ships were sunk, but American admirals recognized the threat. The destoyer never lived up to its hoped for expectations during World War I, primarily because the envisioned range and accuracy of torpedoes was not achieved. The destroyers did help keep torpedo boats away from battleships. But the Royal Navy and U.S. Navy found the destoyer was precisely the vessel needed for an even greater threat -- to defeat the German U-boats. It was entirely serendipitous that the destroyers were available tor this purpose. The America Naval Construction Act of 1916 envisioned building 50 modern destroyers. Eventually the United States added another 200 additional destroyers in the World War I crisis. And those destroyers were assigned the most critical assignment given to the U.S. Navy in the War -- getting the American Expeditonary Force safely to France. The German admirals assured the Kaiser and the Reichstag that not only would the U-boats starve Britain out of the War, but that American troops were not a real threat. American troop transports like British merchant shipping would be savaged by Kreigsmarine U-boats. In fact this did not happen. The German U-boats did not sink one troop-laden transport headed to France. German U-boats did sink two empty transports returning to America to pick of more Doughboys. And as Gen. Ludendorf would admit after the War, it was the American infantry that would defeat Germany. It was thus arguably the greatest failure of any navy in the entire history of naval warfare. The German Kreiegsmarine not only failed to protect Germany, but actually was responsible for brining America into the War and thus defeating Germany. It would take the U.S. Army a year before it went into action on the Western from. The U.S. Navy's Destroyer Flotilla Mo. 9 was committed to the Western approacches within weeks of America entering the War. And not only were the existing destroyers cimmitted, but the United States launched a massive naval building program, chirming out 275 destroyers and 400 sunmarine chasers which played a major role in defeatinjg the U-boat menace.
The American Submarine vService is known as the Silenbt Service. They were little regarded by American admirals who looked on big-gun battleships as what vwas impoirtant. They were seen as of some limited ise in coastal protection. The first American paractical sub was the the USS Holland (1900). It provided the foundation of technologicak deveiopment. The German use of U-boats was fillowed by American admirals after the War broke out (1914) and almost resulted in nAmerican enteringthe War after a U0boat sank the British liner Lusitania.
The United States had a small sunmarine force of 30 ships. The U.S. Navy established its Submarine School at the main Submarine Base in New London, Connecticut just before America entered the War (January 19, 1917). It would be German U-boats and the German navak dicreine of ubnrestricted submarine wardare that wiukd binhg America into the War.
The IU.S, Navy had 46 subs, but only a dozen or so were capable of combat. One might ask why the U.S. Navy needed a subnarine force. Subs coud be used to attack capital ships and cruisers. It cpild also bev used to scout enemy forces and to establish screens around naval firces. As the war developed, the sun was parimarily used by the Germans in a commerce campaign. The Gernans primary used their U-noats to cut Britain's vital sealanes. They were thus to attack Allied and neutral mercahnt men supplying Britain. Germany because of the British naval blockade had little shipping that could be attcked by sunmarines. Building a submarine force in part reflected the fact that it was not entirly clear what country would be America's long term naval enemy. This was decided until Kaiser Wilhelm ordered the resumption of unrestructed submarime welfare and after the War when Britain made the momenous decision not to contest America's emergence as the preeminent world power. There is no evidebce that American submnarines ever engaged a German U-boat during the War. The primary impact of World War I on the Navy submarine service was that the Navy obtained German U-boats as war priced and ere able to study them. The German U-boats were mire advanced than anything the American Navy had deployed at the tine,.
The Germans had the strongest army in Europe. Their best chance to win the war was in the first months before the Russians fully mobuklized and the British could deployba substantial army on the Continent. The French Miracle on the Marne (September 15) stoped the initial German offensive. Gradually the conflict became a war of attrition. Here the odds favored the Allies with their greater resources. The greater naval power of the Allies also came into play. The Royal Navy and French blockade of Germany played a major role in undermining the German and Austrian economies and civilian morale. This was largely accomplished before America entered the War. America had the third/fourth largest navy in the world, after Britain, France, and perhaps Germany. The 300 warships of the American Navy thus added to the effectiveness of the Allied blockade. The great sea battle of the War jad been fought off Jutland (1916). The Germans were unable to overcome the larger Royal Navy Grand Fleet. Five American battleships jointed the Grand Fleet at Scapa Flow (December 1917). A second American battleship division subsequently followed. It was based at Bantry Bay in Ireland.
The U.S. Navy was primarily deployed in the North Atlantic to guard the sea lanes between America and her new allies (Britain and France). This had become a major problem becuse the Germans had reintroduced Unrestricted Submarine Warfare and shipping losses were mounting. The U-boats were also a threat to the American troopships which were needed to deliver the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) to France. A few Navy vessels were deployed in the Mediterranean, but the bulk of the Navy was deploted in the North Atlantics. It was German U-boats and the German decesion to resume unrestricted submarine warfare that brought America into the War. The United States played an imprtant role in the develooment of the modern convoy system. U.S. Rear Admiral William Sims urged the Royal Navy to adopt convoys. [Delamer] The Wilson administration picked Simms to serve as the senor naval attache at the U.S. Embassy in London just before declaring war on Germany. After declaring war, Sims was given command over U.S. naval forces operating from Britain--this meant the Western Approaches where the U-boats were operating and blocking deliveries of food and munitions to the Allies. Arms deliveries were limited because the United States did not have a subtantial arms industry. Sims worked smoothly with his British counterpart, Admiral Sir Lewis Bayly. They developed a highly effective convoy system. [Gill and Morrison] The convoy system along with the British invention of ASDAC (SONAR) substantially reduced shipping losses. While the U.S. Army was unprepared, the Navy was prepared to make an immeduiate contribution to the War. Destroyer Flotilla Eight was immediately ordered to join the Royal Navy anti-submarine patrol force in the eastern Atlantic. They operated out of Queensland (now Cobh), Ireland. The first of 121 American wooden 110-foot subchasers began operating in European waters (May 1918). The U.S. Navy began laying the first of 56,610 mines in the North Sea, strenthening the anti-submarine barrage (July 1918). The Cruiser and Transport Force was formed to convoy American troops to France (May 1917) [Gill]. It was formed with fast transports. The Germany Navy which assured the Kaiser and Reichstag that America would not be able to transport an army to France did not suceed in sinking even one troopship. Over 1 million GIs were safely transported to France and many more were awaiting transport when Germany asked for the Armistice.
Interestingly, Sims after the War was very critical at the support he got. He publically criticised Navy Secretary Danniels. In reality this meant a young Franklin Roosevelt who was virtyally rinning the Navy Department. [Sims]
Only a few U.S. Navy vessels were sunk during the War. The cruiser San Diego sank as a result of mines layed by a German U-boat off New York. Two Navy destroyers protecting convoys were sunk by U-boats.
the first American naval aviation units reached France (June 1917). Eventually, 16,000 sailors and 500 naval aircraft would operate from bases in England, Ireland, France, Gibraltar, Corfu and Italy.
The War had a huge impact on the U.S. Navy even though there were no major fleet actions. The War and the deployment of the Navy primarily to escort convoys affected progress on the naval construction ptogram approved in 1916. The construction of battleships and cruisers were delayed. What the Navy desperately needed needed was destroyers and smaller vessels to escort convoys and attack German U-boats that were deployed to cut off Britain and stop the troop transports from reaching France.
Delamer, Kevin. Professor of Strategy at U.S. Naval War College (2007-present), personal communication (October 23, 2019).
Gill, C.C. Naval Power in the War (New York: George H. Doran, 1919). Commander Gill drafted the official U.S. Navy report on the transport of American troops and supplies to Europe during World War I. He wrote on submarines before the U.S. entered the war and had served on the editorial staff of the Proceedings of the U.S. Naval Institute. He may, as a junior officer involved in the Navy�s intellectual life, have been influenced by Sims, but his scholarship is solid and he had contemporaneous access to the official document.
Little, Branden. "Tarnishing victory? Contested histories & civil–military discord in the U.S. Navy, 1919–24," Defense & Security Analysis Vol.36, 2020, Issue 1: Special edition on the U.S. Navy: Past, Present, and Future (2020).
Morison, Elting E. Admiral Sims and the Modern American Navy (Cambridge, MA: Riverside Press, 1942).
Sims, William. The Victory at Sea (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Page & Co.. 1920).
Trask, David. Essay on William Sims, in James Bradford (ed.) Admirals of the New Steel Navy (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1990).
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