The War of the Triple Alliance, also called the Paraguyan War, was the bloodiest conflict in Latin-American history. It is also dscribed as the 'stupidest war in Latin American history'. It was a war fought by Paraguay against aan alliance of neighboring states (Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay). Only Bolivia among the countries bordering Paraguay did not enter the War. They would fight their own war a few decades later. The countries between Argentina and Brazil (Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay) struggled in the 19th century to retain their independence and territory against their more powerful neigbors. Argentina during the War for Independence attempted unsuccessfully to include what becamme Paraguay and Uruguay in their new nation. Even after independence, a range of issues, especially boundaries were left unresolved. Argentina and Brazil claimed territory that Paraguay also claimed. Uruguay was also a bone of contention. Brazilian Emperor Dom Pedro II intervened in Uruguayan politics and assisted the leader of Uruguay's Colorado Party to overthrow the Blanco Party (1864). Paraguayan Dictator , Francisco Solano López, saw this as a prelude toward Brazilian interference in his country. He declared war on Brazil (1864). López had conducted a massive buildup of a 50,000-man army. It was the largest army in South America, althogh poorly equipped. Bartolomé Mitre, president of Argentina, concerned about Paraguay's military buildup, saw this as an opportunity to obtain long-saught territoiry, organized an alliance with Brazil and Colorado-controlled Uruguay (the Triple Alliance). They declared war on Paraguay (May 1, 1865). Many Latin Americans when the War began saw Paraguay as the agressor and a threatening nation. As the War went on and went against Paraguay, sentiment shofted and began to be seen as Mitre's war of conquest, even in Argentina. The Emperor gave command of the Brazilian forces at the end of the War to his French son-in-law, the Count d'Eu. The War played an important role in the eventual abolition of slavery in Brazil. Slaves who volunteered for military service were granted their freedom. The largely Aner0Indian Paraguayan people were fanatically committed to López and the war effort, and as a result they fought with suisiudal ferocity. The War hinged on the Paraguayan river fortress of HumaitÃ¡--the Gibraltar of South Americas. It was locazted near the confluence of the Paraná and Paraguay rivers
The War of the Triple Alliance, also called the Paraguyan War, was the bloodiest conflict in Latin-American history. It is also dscribed as the 'stupidest war in Latin American history'. It was a war fought by Paraguay against an alliance of neighboring states (Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay). Only Bolivia among the countries bordering Paraguay did not enter the War. They would fight their own war a few decades later--the Chaco War. Many Latin Americans when the War began saw Paraguay as the agressor and a threatening nation. As the War went on and went against Paraguay, sentiment shofted and began to be seen as Mitre's war of conquest, even in Argentina. One historiuan writes, "I don’t think any other Latin American country has gone through what Paraguay experienced. That’s why it has left such a strong mark on the Paraguayan collective consciousness." It is difficult to think of any country in modern times that has has such an apocalyptic experience. [Caballero]
Praguay was in many ways an excepotional country. It was the Latin American country with the largest proportiin of Amer-Indiuans (Guarani). This is the only non-Andean country in South America with a larger ner-Indian population. The Inca had not been able to incvorporate then in their empire. During the Spanish colonial empire, they had been protected fron subjugation by the Jesuits and their missions. The attacks had come primarily from Portuguese slave riders. They managed to establish autnomous districts. The absence of gold and silver mean that they were not of great interest to the Spanish. And as the competition for control intensified, the Spanish found that they needed the Guaraní to repel the Portuguese/Brazilian attacks. With the advent of the wars of independence began against Spain, Paraguay declared its independence by overcoming the small Spanish garison in Asuncion (1811). The colonials in Paraguay refused to join Argentina. With independence like much of the rest of Latin America, Paraguay came under the control of dictators--strong men referred to as caudillos. In Paraguay, it became a mixture of benevolent despotism amd populaist tyranny. As a result of Soanish colonial rule, there was no tradition of democracy. In sharp contrast to English North America, dictatorship was not unusual in Latin America, the Paraguayan mix was. The young reoublic had three dictators. The first dictator was Dr. Gaspar Rodriguez de Francia (1814-40). He even called himself a dictator. He was the 'organic leader' -- meaning the eltist imdodiment of the popular will. He was followed by Carlos Antonio Lopez (1840-62) and then his son Francisco Solano Lopez (1862-70). It was the later that would lead Paraguay into the devestating War of the Triple Alliance.
The Guaraní are a group of culturally-related Amer-Indians, Latin Americans use the term indigenous peoples. They are ethnically related to the Tupi, but speak the Guaraní language. The pre-Colombian range of the Guaraní was huge. It included modern Paraguay between the Uruguay River and lower Paraguay River, the northrrn Misiones Province of Argentina, vast areas southern Brazil once as far north as Rio de Janeiro, Uruguay, and low-land Bolivia. [Métraux] As the Inca expanded their empire (15th century) they eventually came into contact with southern lowland tribes, especially the Guaraní. We note the Inca at first fortifying areas in the south. Eventually, just before the Spanish conquest, the Inca were beginning extending control over lowland peoples. [Scholl, p. 152.] There were pre-Colonian conflicts betwen the Inca and Guaraní which continued just before the Spanish conquest of the Inca. [Nordenskiöld] Amer-Indians with the arrival of the Europeans had to make a deciusion. Many at first allied with them to fight traditional enemies. For the Guaraní, this primarily meant the Inca. The Spanish did not come as families as was the case in English North Ameruca. Thus inevitably the Spanish married Amer-Indian women. Thus in Paraguy a Mestizo population developed in addition to the Guasrani. Some Guaraní groups turned against the Spanish and fought to protect their land and culture. This process continued into the 19th century. Conquered Guaraní groups were subjected to the exploitive Encomienda System--basically European feudal serfdom. This was a system of near slavery. Other Guaranís were converted by Jesuit missionaries and organized into mission communities--ofren called reductions. These Jesuit missions became powerful institutions in colonial South America. They played an importanbt role in blunting the Portuguese move into Spanish terrutiry. They were highly patronistic, but the Guarani prospered under the Jesuit-mission system, compasred to other Amer-Indian groups on the Spanish and Portuguese Empires. Spanish offuicials came to resent the Jesuits, believing their prime loyalty was not to the Spanish Crown. There was also the issue of the valuable agriucultural land conrilled by the missiones. In a little more than a decade, the Jesuit order was supressed. This began in Portugal wehen the first minister, the Marquis de Pombal and the issue was the Jesuit missions (also called reductions) in Latin America. He had the Jesuit Order banned in Portugal (1759). The French monarchy supressed the Jesuit Order (1763/64). The Spanish Crown becamn supressiubng the Jesuits (1767). Eventually even Pope Clement XIV, pressure by the from the Bourbon Dynasties (France, Spain, Two Sicilies, Parma) suppressed the Jesuit Order entiurely (1773). As a result, their vast missions, their imprtant colleges, their churches all were seized or destroyed. They were banished, and the order suppresse. This was in many ways similar to English King Henry VIII disolving tghe monastaries. The Guaraní living at the missions were driven out. Many reverted to their traditionl ways in the forests and bush. The Guaraní who remained had to fight raids on the missions by colonists without the poriotection of the Jesuits. Much of their land and possessions were lost.
Paraguay was an anomally. It had a population of only about 0.5 million people, mostly Gusraní or mestizo stuck between South Anerica's two most important counnries--Brazil and Argentina, both of which wanted Paraguay. Then came the revolt againsts Spain which had been occupied by Napoleon. The Buenos Aires cabildo overthrew the Spanish viceroy (1810), at first vowing to rule in the name of Ferdinand VII who had been deposed by Napolelon. The Porteño action at first stunned people in Asunción, who were largely royalist. Regardless of their orientation toward the monarchy, they were strongly opposed to rule by the Porteños. The colonials in Paraguay adamently refused to join Argentina. The Porteños not taking the Parguyans seriously, chiose José Espínola y Peña as their spokesman. Espínola has been described as 'perhaps the most hated Paraguayan of his era'. [Williams] Espínola y Peña fabricated tales Porteño support in Paraguay. The Buenos Aires cabildo sent 1,100 troops under General Manuel Belgrano to estanlish its authority in Asunción. Paraguayan militia defeated Belgranp's force int engagements at Paraguarí and Tacuarí. As a result of contacts at this time, the Paraguayans commanders saw that Spanish dominance in South America was coming to an end, and that they now held power. Royalist authorities in Asunción were aftaid that the Paraguayan commanders who had defeated the Porteños now posed a threat to Spanish rule. Governor Bernardo de Velasco dispersed and disarmed the vuctoruous force. He sent most of the soldiers home without their promised pay. Velasco was not herld in high regard ny the returnming militia. He had fled the battlefield at Paraguarí at a critical mpoint. Discontent rapidly spread. Revolt openmly erupted when Velasco 's smll Spoanisg force reqyested Portuguese military support. Belgrano's forces were still encamped in northern Argentina. The result was Paraguayans overcame the small Spanish garison in Asuncion -- the Cuartelazo Coup d'état (Masy 1811). Paraguay then declared its independence.
Brazil and Argentina are the two dominant countries of South America. The history of the 19th century in South America was to aubstabtil degree where the kinr between Portuguese and Spanish voundaries wiukd ve divuded between the bew ijndeoendent reroublics. The countries between Argentina and Brazil (Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay) struggled in the 19th century to retain their independence and territory against their more powerful neigbors. Argentina during the War for Independence attempted unsuccessfully to include what becamme Paraguay and Uruguay in their new nation. Even after independence, a range of issues, especially boundaries were left unresolved. Argentina and Brazil claimed territory that Paraguay also claimed.
Inland Paraguay had boundary issues and tariff disputes with its powerful neighbours (Argentina and Brazil).
Uruguay was another importabt bone of contention in the region. The Uruguayans were struggling d maintain their independence from Brazil and Argentuna. Brazil helped the leader of Uruguay’s Colorado Party to oust his Blanco Party opponent (September 1864).
Three leaders dominated the War of Tripple Alliance or Paraguyan War. The war would niot hve occurred without the agressive leadership of Paraguyan dictator Francisco Solano López. Paragusy had built up a huge miltary force, astinidshing for a countru with dsuch a small country withg limited resources. And López decided to use that force, first by invading Brazil to come to the aid of Urugusy. He soon found himself at war not only with Brazil , but also Argentina, both much largera nd more powerful countries. Eventilly even Uruguy wiould join the coalutioin against him. Brazilian Emperor Dom Pedeo after military reverses would lead the Brailian firces in the field. President Mitre of Argentina helped organize the Triple Alliance and would lead the allied forces in the field. The llied forces were overwheamingly superior, but López would contunue the fight to the bitter end. And amazingly the Paraguayan people despite the horrendous casulaties would remain loyal.
Emperor Dom Pedro II (1825–91) who became known as "the Magnanimous" was one of the two emperors of Brazil reigning for 58 years. He was born in Rio de Janeiro one of Emperor Dom Pedro I of Brazil and Empress Dona Maria Leopoldina seven children. This was the Brazilian branch of the Portuguese House of Braganza. His father who had declared Brazil's independence (1822), unexpedtedly abdicated and departed for Europe (1831). He left his 5-year old son as the new emperor. Historians describe the boy's childhood as 'grim and lonely' It was devoted to study and preparation for his coming rule. He experiebed court intrigues and political disputes as a child and teenager. He rose to the throne as a monarch with a real sence of duty and patriotic duty. Empire does not get an accurate depiction of the state he helped fashion. Brzail developed in sharp contrast the former Spanish colonoes which surrounded it. The Brazilian Empire was politically stable with a vibrant parlimentary democracy, ensured feee speech, guaranted basic civil rights, and generated strong economic growth. Dom Pedro II was a highly successful leader. He inherited an empire on the verge of disintegration and managed to turn it into an emerging power.
Even as war with the British Empire appeared (1863), a crisis on the southern border arose. One more civil war flared in Uruguay. [Carvalho, p. 108,] The violemce reportedly led to the murder of Brazilians and looting of their property in Uruguay. [Lira, Vol 1, p. 220.] It is difficult to know with any certain how serious this was. Such incidednts are often used to justify intervebtionas the British were doing to Brazil. The Emperor decided to intervene in Uruguayan politics and assisted the leader of Uruguay's Colorado Party to overthrow the Blanco Party (1864). This is what Paraguayan President López used to justify his invasion of Brazil.
Paraguayan president-dictator, Francisco Solano López, was the third in a line of sucessive duictators after Paraguay achieved independence. He suceeded his father, Carlos Antonio Lopez (1840-62). Dr. Rodriguez de Francia and the Lópezes were what the Latin Americans began calling cauldillos--strong men. The new Latin American republics were plagued by these cudillos--essentiually dictators. The Rodriguez de Frabci Lópezes were different, seeing themselves as enlightened dictators. An they took of the cause of the Guaraní. No other Latin Anerucanb ductator champoioned the cause of their Amer-Indian population. They essentially pursued what becme kjnown in America as Affirmtive Action. They wanted to build the Paraguayan nation on the Guaraní character and limit the power of the old Creole elite. These thrre dictators turned thed country into what they saw as an enligtened Sparta, according to one historian, 'egaltarian, literare, diusciplined, and brave.' [Landes, p. 331.]
López saw Brazilian interderence in Uruguay as a prelude toward Brazilian interference in his country. López correctly assessed the Brazilian intervention in Uruguay as a Brazil's disregard of Uruguayan and Paraguayan soverignity. He also accurately saw that Brazil and Argentian just igniored his country when formulatung national policies. But he erred disastorously when he concluded that preserving Uruguayan 'independence' was vital for Paraguay. López was intent on a policy of develooping Paraguayan 'third force' between Argentina and Brazil. This was the idea behind his military build up. López thus decided to aid Uruguay. He declared war on Brazil (1864). This is what precipitated Lopez's devision for war abnd the need to move through Argentina. Only by the tome he acted, the Blancos were fitmly in contol abd he faced three countries unstead of just Brazil which would have been bad enough.
Bartolomé Mitre (1821-1906) was one of Argentim's more sucessful presidents. He was born in Argentina into a family of Greek ancestry. He managed to pull together a contry challenged by an agressive Paraguay in Latin America's bloodiest war and launch an era of peace and economic progress in the second half of the 19th century leading Argentina toward becoming a modern deveopped country. As a young man, he opposed the ductoirship Juan Manuel de Rosas, and went into a 15-year exile (1837). He lived in Uruguay, Bolivia, Peru, and Chile. He edited the newspaper El Mercurio using it as a platform to oppose Rosas. The uprising against Rosas began (1852). He returned to Argentina and joined in the campaign of Justo José de Urquiza, governor of Entre Ríos culminating in the battle of Caseros. He became the leader of the Liberal Party. He supported national unity in a era of reblliouis provinces. His answer to demans to privincial autonomy was federal system. The issue of national unity was settled by Mitre's victory at the battle of Pavón (1861). His impressive political prowess led him to the presidency (1862). He began the regular succession of constitutional presidents every 6 years. His election in 1862 meant that his presudency would be defined by the need to cinfront an aggresive Paraguay and enter the War of the Triple Alliance. President Mitre did not want a war. Thus he did not oppose Brazil's intervention in Uruguay (1864). He was forced into the war after Paraguayan President López led an invaion of Corrientes Privince to get to Uruguay. Argentina declared war on Paraguay (1865). President Mitre who had been concerned about Paraguay's military build up for some time signed the Treaty of the Triple Alliance with Uruguay and the Brazilian Empire (1865). He was designated commander in chief of the Allied forces. He chose not to run for a second term. A major contribution to Argentina was founding the newspaper La Nación(1870) which continues to be Argentina's leading newspapers and one of the most important in the region. He also devoted himself to writing important histories of Argentina.
Britain almost got involved in the developing war in South America. The arrogant British consul in Rio de Janeiro, William Dougal Christie, in the best traditioins of gun-boat diplomacy came to close to setting of a war with Brazil. Christie delivered an ultimatum with outrageous demamds because ot two minor incidents (1861-62). A British ship sank in shallow waters off the coast of Rio Grande do Sul and its goods were pillaged by the local population. Then drunken British officers creating a disturbance in the streets of capital Rio de Janeiro. [Calmon, p.678.] The Brazilian Government rejected the Christie ultimatum. Christie then ordered the Royal Navy ships operating off Brazil to seize Brazilian merchant vessels as an 'indemnity'. The Emperor prepared for what looked like a war with Britain--a major threat at the time. Dom Pedro was adament and took Chridtie's ultimatum as an insult to the Brazilizan nation, which it was. He oposed any suggestion of compling. [Barman, p. 191.] This rejectiomn shocked Christie, who changed his tenor. He probably did not want to answer to the British foreign office for starting a war for no real reason. Remember that this was before the era of modern communications. He was determined to teach Brazil a lesson. [Fitzgerald] Cristie also took on the American ambassador, James Watson Webb, over a card game. [Lubenow, p. 171.] The Foreign Office instructed to accept a Brazilian offer of arbitration if it was made. He apparently only did so only after military action had been taken. He was at first acting on his own. Christie finally offered a peaceful settlement through international arbitration as instructed by the Foreign Office. The Brazilian government responded with demands if its own. And sensing that the British position was weakening, severed diplomatic relations (June 1863). [Carvalho, p. 1052.] This was hardly a good position to be in when Paraguay invaded (1864). The Emperor went to the front where he helped repel the Paraguayan forces. The British dent a diplomatic envoy Edward Thornton. Who was so anxious to end the criusuis created bt Christie that he traveled into the interior, meaning rough conditions, to meet with the Emperor. Thorton apologized on behalf of Queen Victoria and the British Government for the crisis. [Lira, Vol 1, p. 237.] There are not a lot of leaders, to which the the Queen ever apologized. The Emperor was delighted with a peaceful victory over over the most powerful nation of the world as rewarding in itself. He agged to renewed friendly and correct relations.
López had conducted a massive buildup of a 50,000-man army. It was the largest army in South America, althogh poorly equipped. The Government begn buying srmd, viuttuslly rverything thry could ger a hold. They were limited by Pargusy's limitded funds nbcd thde sbilitgy yo gt into the lsnd-locked country. Paragusy had unversal male conscripotiin as well as reserve classes. They thus had mire men underarmd thn Bruizil And Argntina combined, butheyt were poorly asrmed. The largely Aner-Indian Paraguayan people were fanatically committed to López and the war effort, and as a result they fought with suisiudal ferocity.
Bartolomé Mitre, president of Argentina, had just suceeded in uniting his country after military revols in the oprivinces. He had no interest in a bloody war with either Brail or Paraguay. He was, however, concerned about Paraguay's masive military buildup. The Praguayan invasion gorced him into a war. He also saw this as an opportunity to obtain long-sought territory in the north. He organized an alliance with Brazil and Colorado-controlled Uruguay which becamed known as the Triple Alliance. They declared war on Paraguay (May 1, 1865).
López set off a powder keg when he seized the Brazilian steamer, the Marquês de Olinda (November 1864). It would lead to the most significant war ever fought in South America (1864) [Whigham] At the opening of the war, Paraguayan forces advanced northward into the Brazilian province of Mato Grosso and southward into the province of Rio Grande do Sul (March 1865). This proved to be one of Paraguay's few successes in the war. López then decided to come more irectly to the aid of Uruguay by attacking BVrazil'd Rio Grabde de Sul, just north of Uruguay. He assumed that Argentnia would allow him to move through Argentine territory. When he did not get permission, sent his troops forward anyway. And as a result, Argentina insterad if becoming an ally became an enemny combatant. Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay (now a puppet status) sihnd the Treaty of the Triple Alliance (May 1865). The sugnatoried were committed to destroying the López's government.
The Allies had blockaded the rivers leading to Paraguay (by January 1866).
Logistical problems and the buildup of the allied troop strength, which soon outnumbered Paraguay's by 10 to 1, forced the Paraguayans to withdraw behind their frontiers. Brazilian naval forces defeated a Paraguayan flotilla on the Paraná¡ River at Riachuelo, near the Argentine city of Corrientes (June 1865). Presudent Mitre led an Allied invading force into southwestern Paraguay but was prevented from advancing for 2 years. Fierce battles were fought; the most notable, won by the Paraguayans at Curupayty (September 1866).. This stopped Allied advances for nearly a year. Both sides incurred heavy losses.
The Emperor gave command of the Brazilian forces at the end of the War to his French son-in-law, the Count d'Eu. The War played an important role in the eventual abolition of slavery in Brazil. Slaves who volunteered for military service were granted their freedom.
Lópex began building river fortificatiins at Humaitá as a result of problems with Brazil (1854). The fortiufiucatioins were epanded over time. [Burton, p. 315.] They became formidable and began to be reffered to as the Gibraltar of South Anerica (1859). The War hinged on Humaitá. It blocked Allied control of the rivers which were needed for transporting supplies. Humaitá was located near the confluence of the Paraná and Paraguay Rivers. A U-bend in the Paraná Rriver and the firt bridtling with guns made it easy to block Argentine and Brazilian ships. Ships have to slow making them vulnrravle to fire from the fort. The countries involved has only begun to build rail lines. River transport was still vital. The firtress held for 3-years. Brazilian Marquis (later Duke) de Caxias took over command of the Allied armies from Mitre (January 1868). Brazilian irion-clad armoured vessels finlly broke thriough the irin chain acriss the fiver. The Pataguayans sent oit small craft with barders, but even thise reaching the iron clads suffered grevious losses. The Braxilians closed theur hatches and wept the vesseks with fire. The Allies then layed seigew. Lóppez refused to allow the commander to surrender. The commander shot himself. The garrison eventually had to surrenddr. (January 1968). López arrested his wufe and had her tortured and shot. The Allieds advanced north to to bombard the Paraguyan capital of Asunción.
The Battle of Lomas Valentinas (Battle of Ita Ybate) was fought in the Central Department of Paraguay (December 21–27, 1868). President López personally commzanded the out numbered the Paraguayan Army He was decisively defeated, athough he managed to escape. His Army was annihilated. The Paraguayan garrison at Angostura surrebdered (December 30).
López fled inti a swaopy area wher he resusted with a small force and few arms and little amunition. He conducted a protracted guerrilla war. López lost his oldestvson. Brazilian troops finally cornered López (March 1870). He final words were, "Muero con mi patria!." (I die with my homeland!) He refused to surrender and was shot and his final words were no exaggeration given the devestation left in his wake.
The lasrgely Amer-Indian population of Paraguay were devoted to López and remained so despite the horrendous war losses. The population, especially the male population, was devestated. The population was about 525,000 people. As result of the War, the population was reduced to some 221,000 (1871). Some estimates are even hugher. Only about 28,000 were men. And it was not just adult men killed, teenagers were killed including younger teenagers. These were not just combast deaths. The poorly supplied Paragusyan Army malnutrition and disease. An increasingly desperate López was ruthless. He ordered the torture and execution of men to maintindidcipline. Argentina and Brazil annexed about 55,000 square miles (140,000 square km) of Paraguayan territory. Argentina seized much of the Misiones region and part of the Chaco between the Bermejo and Pilcomayo Rivers. Brazil anned territory to expand Mato Grosso. Both countries demanded a huge indemnity. Paraguay was a poor country to begin with and was devestated by the war. The indemity was never paid. They occupied Paraguay (until 1876). Another impact was on Paraguayan land ownership patterns. One author writes, "From 1870 onwards, the dominant economic system has been that of large estates. This has greatly excluded small-scale farmer and indigenous populations. It’s a historical problem that still affects us." [Benítez] Paraguay today has the highest inequality of land ownership in the world. Some 85 percent of agricultural land is held by just 2.5 percent of owners. Small-scale farmers and Amer-Induan groups face widespread landlessness. Nearly 15 percent of Paraguayan land is in the hands of Brazilian farmers. [Costa].
Barman, Roderick J. (1999). Citizen Emperor: Pedro II and the Making of Brazil, 1825-1891 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999).
Benítez, Ernesto. A Paraguayan working with small-scale farmers.
Burton, Captain Sir Richard. Letters From the Battle-Fields of Paraguay (London: Tinsley Brothers, 1870).
Calmon, Pedro. História de D. Pedro II (Rio de Janeiro: José Olímpio, 1975).
Carvalho, José Murilo de. D. Pedro II: ser ou não ser (São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2007).
Costa, William. "Paraguay still haunted by cataclysmic war that nearly wiped it off the map," The Guardian (February 27, 2020).
Fitzgerald, Seymour. British Member of Parliament. "Brazil -- Paper moved for," House of Commons Debate (July 16, 1863) Vol. 172 cc879-928.
Landes, David S. TheWealth and Poverty of Nations: Why Some Are so Rich and Some Are So Poor (W.W. Norton: New York, 1999), 658p.
Lira, Heitor. História de Dom Pedro II (1825–1891): Ascenção (1825–1870) (Belo Horizonte: Itatiaia, 1977).
Lubenow, William C. The Cambridge Apostles, 1820–1914: Liberalism, Imagination, and Friendship in British Intellectual and Professional Life (1998).
Nordenskiöld, Baron Erland. "The Guarani invasion of the Inca Empire in the sixteenth century: An historical Indian migration," Geographical Review Vol. 4, No. 2 (August 1917), pp. 103-21.
Métraux, Alfred. The Guarani (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1948)
Scholl, Jonathan. At the Limits of Empire: Incas, Spaniards, and the Ava-Guarani (Chiriguanaes) on the Charcas-Chiriguana Frontier, Southeastern Andes (1450s-1620s) PhD Disertation: Univesrsity of Florida, 2015).
Whigham, Thomas. The road to Armageddon : Paraguay versus the Triple Alliance, 1866-70 (Calgary, Alberta, Canada: University of Calgary Press, 2017.
Williams, John Hoyt.
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