We know very little about the Yugoslav educational system at this time, especially the situation in Royal Yugoslavia. There were major differences between Royal Yugosavoa (1918/23-45) and Communist Yugoslavia (1945-91). Royal Yugoslavia adopted an educatinal system heavily influenced by the Austrain/German educational ideas and standards. Unfortunatly much of the information available on Yugoslav education concerns the post-World War II Communist era. Communist Yugoslavia made major changes in the educational system. The shift was toward Soviet educational norms. This shift was affected by Tito's break with Stalin (1948). Although evntually repaired after Stalin's death (1953), the Soviets never totally controlled Yugoslavia like they did the rest of their Eastern European Empire. As a result, a more moderare form of Communism and thought control developed in Communist Yugoslavia than the rest of Eastern Europe. There were major change in education after the Communist World War II seizure of power. The school systems in Royal and Communist Yugosalvia were so different that they need to be treated separately.
Yugoslavia was organized around the serbian monarchy after the Allied victory in World War I. It took a few years to work out the cnstitutinal structures. Despite political differences with the Austrians and Germans, we believe that the education system in Serbia and the other entities that became Yugoslavia after world war I was strongly influenced by the Austrian/German system. This seems to be common throuhout the Balkans and Central Europe in part because of the influence of the German cultural sphere and the excellemce of German education. In addition, with the decline of Ottoman Power (19th century) large parts of Yugoslavia were controlled at some time by the Austrians or Austro-Hungarian Empire. We think that until World War II that the schools were largely operated by the constiuent parts of the federally organized country. We are unsure what kind of effort was made to create a national education system and enforce those standards on the provinces. Language rights were a major concern. Minority groups (motly Germans and Jews) had some rights to separate schools. We note, for example, a German school in Lazarevo located in Serbia during 1939. The German name of Lazarevo is Lazarfeld. Some secondary schools had uniform regulations, mostly for the girls. The boys rarely had uniforms, but commonly had peaked cadet caps like the ones common in Germany at the time.
The school situation during Workd war II was very complicatd. Yugoslavia was occupied by the Axis during World War II. The Germans invaded (April 1941). And then partitioned the coubtry among itself and its Axis allies (Croatia, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Italy). Many schools were closed or did not operate. Some were damaged. But some did continue to operate, although under different authorities. The situations varid in the different privinces and were affected by who was in control. The Germans schools in the extended Banat operated and in the area of Slovenia annexed to the Reich. The schools in German colaborationist Croatia also operated until the Particans began to gain the upper hand. The Germans were not intereested in educated foreigner and the dange done to the economy ment that limited funds were availble for education. Further disruptions occured as the Germans began withdrawing north *October 1944). The Germans in some areas they occupied (Polnd and the Soviet Union baically c;losed down the schools. This did not occur in Yugoslavia bcause the occupstion regime was so much more complicated.
Communist Yugoslavia made major changes in the educational system. The shidt ws toward Soviet educational norms. This shift was affected by Tito's break with Stalin (1948). Although evntually repaired after Stalin's death (1953), the Soviets never totally controlled Yugoslavia like they did the rest of their Eastern European Empire. As a result, a more moderare form of Communism and thought control developed in Communist Yugoslavia than the rest of Eastern Europe. We are not entirely sure just how this affected Yugoslav education. There were major change in education after the Communist World War II seizure of power. There were three major changes. First, the Communist expanded the education system to increase secondary schooling so that most of the children continued their education after primary chool. Second, they also expanded the control of the nationl government over eduction. Third, the Communists introduced Marxism into the education which affected the teaching of mny subjects, including most obviously history, economics, and political science. Other subjects were also affected. Art and literature had to conform to Marxist standards. Artists and authors had to conform to Markist standards and support the Communist Party and revolutionry process. This began in the schools where art and literature were taught. Yugoslavia was one of the countries most devestated by the War. It thus took the country some time to rebuild the school systm and for added resources ti have a major impact. The education that eventually developed in Communist Yugoslavia. Primary education wass compulsory for all children between the ages of 7-15 years of age. The first 8 years was primary education. At the end of the primary years, the children take an a national examination. The result determine their future educational path. The children entering secondary schools coild chose eith a
either a grammar (academic), vocational or art school. Grammar schools provide a curiculum including social studies and science, and prepare those pupils who ear their pass their Diploma o ZavrÅ¡enoj Srednjoj Å koli for tertiary education. Art Schools offered students courses in music, ballet and art. Vocational can chose various forms of practical training needed to acquire a job, or technical education that prepares them for further study. The first option is a 2-year program. The second option is a 4-year program. Once this is completed there are further options to pursue vocational skills at colleges. Yugoslav tertiary education
include both university-level faculties and art academies. There are also non-university post-secondary schools with progtrams up to 3 years. Normal undergraduate university programs last 4-6 years. The premier institution was the University of Belgrade which was founded as a secondary school at the end of the Ottoman period (1808). It was a huge institution. Before the post-ColdWar break up of Yugoslavia, it had over 90,000 students, 4,200 teaching staff and 31 faculties clustered in five academic groupings. It graduated several hundred thousand students and had a substantial international reputation.
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