Yugoslavia was formed as a nation for the southern Slavs after World War I (1914-18). The nucleus and largest component of the new country was Serbia. Serbian natonalism had sparked the War and the Serbs throughout the War had been a stalwart member of the Allied coalition. After the War the reward was a new nation fo the southern Slavs. The Serbian monarchy became the monarchy of Yugoslavia. In additionto Serbia, Yugoslavia was also formed out of several other countris and provinces, including Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Slovenia. We know vey little about the Yugoslave educational system. Despite political differences with the Austrians and Germans, we believe tht the education system was strongly influenced by the Germans. This seems to be common throuhout the Balkans and Central Europe i part because of the influence of the German cultural sphere and the excellemce of German education. In addition large parts of Yugoslavia were controlled at some time by the Austrians or Austro-Hungarian Empire. We have very limited information about Yugoslav schools at this time. We think that until World War I that the schools were largely operated by the constiuent parts of the country. We are unsure what kind of effort was made to create a national education system. Minority groups had some rights to separate schools. We note, for example, a German school in Lazarevo located in Serbia during 1939. The German name of Lazarevo is Lazarfeld. We note a secondary school located in Bitola, Macedonia during 1941. This was of course during World War II. We suspect it may have been taken before the German invasion (April 1941). Here religious differences were a factor. This of course changed after World War II and the Communist takeover. We note a primary school in Macddonia at Stumica after the war during the Communist era. Unfortunatly much of the information available on Yugoslav education concerns the post-World War II Communist era. And there were major change in education after the Communist World War II seizure of power. There were three major changes. First, the Communist expanded the education system to increase secondary schooling so that most of the children continued their education after primary chool. Second, they also expanded the control of the nationl government over eduction. Third, the Communists introduced Marxism into the education which affected the teaching of mny subjects, including most obviously history, economics, and political science. Other subjects were also affected. Art and literature had to conform to Marxist standards. Artits and authors had to conform to Markist standards and support the Communist Party and revolutionry process. This began in the schools where art and literature were taught.
Yugoslavia was formed as a nation for the southern Slavs after World War I (1914-18). The nucleus and largest component of the new country was pre-War Serbia. It was Serbian natonalism that had sparked the War and the Serbs throughout the War had been a stalwart member of the Allied coalition. After the War the reward was a new nation for the southern Slavs. The Serbian monarchy became the monarchy of Yugoslavia. In additionto Serbia, Yugoslavia was also formed out of several other countries and provinces, including Bosnia, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Slovenia. There were Serbs in some of these provinces, especially Bosnia. The coiuntry was a huge ethnic and religious mix. The various poulations had ethnic and nationalist orientations of their own which resisted Serb nationalism and central government control. There were not just ethnic divusion, religious differences were also a factor. Serbs, Maccedonians and Montenegrans were mostly Orthodox. Croatians and Slovenians were largely Catholic. Kosovo began as Oergodox, but the Muslim population was increasing. Bosnia had a mixed population including many Muslims. These religious groups accenuated the ethnic divide.
We know vey little about the Yugoslav educational system at this time. There were major differences between Royal Yugosavoa (1918/23-45) and Communist Yugoslavia (1945-91). Royal Yugoslavia adopted an educatinal system heavily influenced by the Austrain/German educational ideas and standards. Unfortunatly much of the information available on Yugoslav education concerns the post-World War II Communist era. Communist Yugoslavia made major changes in the educational system. The shift was toward Soviet educational norms. This shift was affected by Tito's break with Stalin (1948). Although evntually repaired after Stalin's death (1953), the Soviets never totally controlled Yugoslavia like they did the rest of their Eastern European Empire. As a result, a more moderare form of Communism and thought control developed in Communist Yugoslavia than the rest of Eastern Europe. There were major change in education after the Communist World War II seizure of power. The school systems in Royal and Communist Yugosalvia were so different that they need to be treated separately.
The garments worn at Yugoslav schools varied over time and depended on the type of school as well as to the location. We have found quite a few images for the first half of the 20th century, but relatively few during the Communist era. There were substantial differences between urban and rural schools. We still see traditionl styles in the early-20th century, especially in rural schools. As the 20th century progressed we see more and more boys wearing modern Western clothing. Quite a number of boys before World War II cadet-like school caps. We also see Yugoslv Army caps. This was the only uniform item commonly worn until the Communist era. Suits were very common until after wrld ar II. Sone boys wore suits in primary school, especially urban schools. Suits were fairly standard in pre-War secondary schools. Schoolwear was seasonal. During warm weather, boys might go to school with just shirts. Short pants were fairly standard throuhgh the 1950s. We alsp see long pants and less commonly knickers. We see all kinds of hosiery, including long-stockings, knee socks, and ankle socks. Many younger rural boys came to school barefoot.
Royal Yugoslavia like many European countries had separate schools for boys and girls. The school class here in 1925 is a good example (figure 1). Small village primary schools might be coed, but city schools and secondary schools were generally single gender schools. This was noit always the case, but for the most prt we ee single-gender schools.
After World War II this began to change. Most of the Soviet empire countries of Eastern Europe made this change abruptly, the new Communist officials anxious to show their admiration for the policies of the socialist motherland. The change to coeducation was not so rapid in Yugoslavia, perhaps because the country was liberated by Partisans and not just the Soviet Red Army. The only place in Eastern Europe this occurred. And then Marshal Tito broke with Stalin (1948). Yugoslavia remained Communist and Tito's repression of anti-Communists was brutal, but Yugoslavia was left free to chart its own path to Communism which became gradually less repressive than the Soviet path. Thus among other matters, we wee a slower transition to coeducation than in the Siviet dominated countries. It was more like what occurred in Western Europe after the War. We still see single gender schools in the 1950s. We are not sure to what extent was promoted at the national or priovincil level. Education in Yugoslavia was to a substantial degree a provincial matter. We think to a significnt degree the chnge was made at the school level, at least ghe timing iof the chnange.
We have begun to acquire some information on individual schools. We note a secondary school located in Bitola, Macedonia during 1941. This was of course during World War II. We suspect it may have been taken before the German invasion (April 1941).
This of course changed after World War II and the Communist takeover. We note a primary school in Macddonia at Stumica after the war during the Communist era.
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