German Depictions of Boys Clothes: Weimar Republic (1918-33)

Figure 1.--.

The film industry of the Weimar Republic, before the NAZIs seized power (1933), was one of Europe's most vibrant film industries in the world. Gradually the many small studios opened during World War I were consolidated intoi larger studios, especially UFA. The German film industry. The German indutry managed to compete with Hollywood in Europe. The film industry wonderfully chronicled the turmoil and uncertainty of post-World War I Germany. The defeat of Germany had shattered all the certainties and stability of German life. France and England experienced similar trends, but given the enormity of defeat, abdication of the Kaiser, and the resulting Vesailles Peace Treaty--the impact German on German society was even more severe. The era stimuklated creativity as it did political disorder. Most of the output of the German film industry during the Weimar era were silent films. I'm not sure when "talkies" were first made, but it would have been about 1930. This is significant because before sound, German and other European films could be easily viewed in different countries. It was a simple matter to translate the text pannels.

Weimar Republic

Political developments

The Weimar Republic was officially proclaimed by Philipp Scheidemann On November 9, 1918, a few days after Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated. Scheidemann was a tailor turned Social Democrat . The Weimar Republic was born after Germany's disastrous defeat in World War I. In the subsequent political upheaval, the Weimar Republic existed as an "amazingly violent, unbridled, often exuberant, often full of strange and clumsy poetry, regularly very hungry and very sad, with touches of high lunacy and crankishness" period of democracy in German history. [de Jonge pg. 7] The Weimar Republic proved a political failure which culminated in the NAZI Party's seizure of power. [de Jonge pg. 242]

The history of the Weimar Republic was marked by political conflicts which often broke out into open street warfare and severe inflation. After the collapse of Imperial Germany in 1918, a struggle for power ensued between differing prospective governments. [de Jonge, pg. 30.] For the first months of 1919, the German capital, Berlin, was in a constant state of disorder. Caotic street fighting between left and right wing factions of the German Army swirled from street to street. [de Jonge, pg. 38.] The fighting culminated in the Kapp Putsch (1920}, an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow the government by a private army known as the Freikorps. [de Jonge, pg. 65.]

The political disorder was exacerbated by the tenuous economic situation in Germany and the disatrous devaluation of the once proud German mark. [de Jonge, pg. 239.] The plunge of the German mark had a profound impact on middleclass Germans which is still felt today. Germans were agast at the plunge of the mark in the early 1920s. By mid-1921, 550 German marks were equal to one dollar. Most Germans felt the situation could not get worse. by November 23rd, however, 1 dollar was the equivalent of 4,200 billion marks. [de Jonge, pg. 240.] The mark eventually fell to the pouint that millions were needed to buy a dollar.

These extreme characteristics of the Weimar Republic were the result of a lack of political unity and direction on the part of the German people. Germany's defeat in World War I occurred despite the assurances of the German military. This staggered most Germans as the IMperial German Army was one of the most respected institutiions in Germany. (Compare this with America, France, and England.) It was the Germany (Prussian) Army that united Germany in a series of wars with Denmark, Austria, and France in the 1860s and erly 1870s. Thus most Germans grew up thinking that the very existence of the country was due to the Army. Most Europeans regarded the German Army as the most powerful in the world. Thus Germany's military collapse came as a great shock to the Germans--especially because a series of military successes were reported in 1917 and early 1918. The Germans succeded in 1919 in knocking Russia out of the War and fiorcing a very severe peace treaty on the Bolesvick Government.

The political and economic collapse resulted in the "destruction of the inherited framework of beliefs and certainties which had given Germany its particular reassurance." [de Jonge, pg. 13)] This lead to a sense of aimlessness on the part of the German people. The Allied occupation of the Ruhr and the harsh policies, such as censorship of films and books, enforced left a profound air of inferiority in the German psyche. [de Jonge, pg. 82.] Because of a lack of political unity from the outset of the Weimar Republic, the German masses found themselves without a strong, focused government- the former figurehead, the Kaiser Wilhelm II, had abdicated his throne in the aftermath of the armistice signed by Germany with the Allies. [de Jonge, pg. 13.] "For teachers, civil servants and above all for the nationís elite, the officer caste this abdication had shaken the foundations of the German self image. [de Jonge, pg.14.] Adding to this discord was the sense of betrayal felt by the German people towards the politicians and revolutionaries who had surrendered Germany to the Allied forces at the end of World War I, and who had signed the harsh Treaty of Versailles. The German generals responsible for the defeat, did their best to transfer the blame to the Social Democrats of the Weimar Republic who in fact had nothing to do with the war. The Army and ferverant nationalists who still venerated the Army vilified the Weimar Republic. Hitler and the NAZUs were just one of many German politicans who pursued this theme. For the German people it was a struggle to accept the collapse of the imperial dream in the post World War I. [Eisner, pg. 9.] The Army was such a respected institution among many Germans that the NAZIs and the Army were able to transfer blame to groups that were not responsible for the debacle--the Jews and Social Democrats.

Crisis and fashion

HBC believes that period's of crisis are often eras in which major changes occur in fashion. Wotld War I was one such cateclismic event that had a profound impact on Europe. Fashion chanfes in the 1920s were one of the many profound changes. This did not occur just in Germany, but throughout Europe and Amerca.

Cultural trends

Despite the political failure, the Weimar Republic, in retrospect, saw a renewed interest in German culture and art. [Kracauer pg. 38] Advances in established arts such as theater, literature and visual arts, were followed by developments in the relatively new art form of cinema. [Ott, pg. 28.] The outpouring of creative work such as modern art proved unsettling to many. This work was quickly supressed once the NAZIs seized power. While it lasted, however, the articistic and cultural outpouring of German artists and writers was a bright light in the history of German culture. The disappearance of the old Germanic order heralded a new type of social disposition. It was in the destruction of the pre- World War I mindset that a new, more decadent urban proclivity emerged in the German people [de Jonge, pg. 101.] World War I removed Germanyís self-image as a leading nation on the worls scene. Some parallels with modern Russia are ddeply disturbing. The rampant inflation of the eraly 1920s further eroded Germany's self estmere by destroying the country's financial structure, thus leaving Germany with very little in the way of a social backbone. [de Jonge, pg. 100.] The impossibility of maintaining a lifestyle adhering to the former German values in light of the many obstacles, for example the rampant inflation that destroyed savings and indirectly the belief in hard work and the lack of national identity, lead to a re-evaluation of the morals and values of their predecessors among the people of Germany of the time. [de Jong, pg. 101.] The impact of the destruction of the old order and certainties of German life was that "the German people had a unique opportunity to overcome hereditary habits and reorganize itself completely." [Kracauer, pg. 43.] An example of this openness in Germany was the increase in prostitution and drug use, mostly centered in large urban centers. [de Jong, pg. 102] This opportunity while creating an outpouring of creativity was to be utimately lost when the NAZIs seized power and quickly supressed the cultural creativity which had flourished under the Weimar Republic.

The Film Industry

It was with this sense of lost purpose and self-exploration so pronounced during the Weimar era that Germanyís film industry would come to its own. The film industry of the Weimar Republic, before the NAZIs seized power (1933), was one of Europe's most vibrant film industries. Gradually the many small studios opened during World War I were consolidated intoi larger studios, especially UFA.

The Imperial era (1870-1918)

Like much of the world, the German film industry did not come into any sort of measurable existence until cinemaís acceptance by major stage producers as a suitable outlet for artistic expression in its own right. [Kracauer, pg. 16.] In Germany this maturity began around 1910, when Paul Davidson, a vocal proponent of early film, made contact with Max Reinhardt a highly regarded Berlin stage producer famous for his avant-garde sets, and formed the first guild for facilitating communication between screen and stage. [Kracauer, pg. 17.] This more open rapport allowed the free exchange of actors and other talent between the two mediums. [Kracauer, pg. 17] Unfortunately, a steady influx of foreign competition and the existing conception of film as merely an offshoot of stage severely hampered the development of German film as an independent art form. [Kracauer, pg. 17.] The First World War, and the subsequent exclusion of foreign films in Germany began the initial steps of the growth of the German film industry. [Kracauer pg. 22.]

The Weimar era (1918-33)

It wasnít until the breakdown of Imperial Germany and the political and social instability that followed that the national mindset was ready for exploration and experimentation in film that lead to expressionism. [Eisner, pg. 19.] The film industry of the Weimar Republic, before the NAZIs seized power (1933), was one of Europe's most vibrant film industries. Gradually the many small studios opened during World War I were consolidated intoi larger studios, especially UFA.

The NAZI era (1933-45)

The NAZI seizure of power in 1933 resulted in findamental changes accross the spectrum of German life. No where was the change more visible in Germany than in the new films made under the NAZIs. The questioning expressionism of Weimar were replaced with the new certainties of NAZI film makers. The NAZI films used many of the technical features of Weimar filmakers, in fact many of the same individuals were were not Jewish or did not have strong political objections, continued to work in the industry. The focus and content of the films, however, were radically changed.


The German film industry rapidly consolidated after the War. May small studios had been founded. Most were too small to compete effectively with the more establisdhed studios. And the difficult economic conditions following the War created more problems. At the end of the War there were more than 00 mostly sdmall tudios. Gradually two major German studios came to dominte the industry. . Ufa was the largest and better known. Tobis seemed to have been more independent than Ufa.

Weimar Expressionism

German expressionism developed along the lines of stimmung, an intense atmospheric mood that creates a sense of claustrophobia (an intense closed style created in part by the unified method of in studio productions.) It revolted against Naturalism emphasizing the inner vision and personal emotional feelings of the filmmakers. This type of expressionism helped to give status to German films following World War I. Many critics define expressionism not by what it is, but by what it is not. It is not naturalism, the efforts to depict reality, the idea that there were artistic forms through which the "real" could be represented.

Characteristic style

While expressionism cannot be defined by any enumerated parameters, expressionistic films are marked by certain characteristics that occur with some regularity. The most apparent to the audience is the predilection for the distortion or shaping of visual images, with shadow, lines or lens. [Eisner, pg. 130.] In films produced in the expressionistic style, the set designer and technical staff play integral parts. [Eisner, pg. 19.] Creative use of special effects, wipes, fades and other camera techniques were explored in search of capturing a certain state of mind. [Eisner, pg. 10.] Sets were often styled to create moods at the expense of realism, the expression of a certain state of mind taking precedence over the careful portrayal of reality. [Eisner, pg. 21.] In such distortions the artist is able to represent the "the complexity of the psyche" and create images in the viewers mind. [Eisner, pp. 23-24.] In seeking to capture the form or eternal meaning of facts and objects, "expressionism set itself against naturalism with its mania for recording mere facts and its paltry aim of photographing nature or daily life." [Eisner, pg. 10.]

Truth and power

In the transience of Weimar society, deriving truth in form from the ephemeral physical reality took on a greater importance. Also manifest in the expressionist films of the Weimar era was the theme of control in both plot and production. Figuring prominently in the ideas of these films was the domination of the weak by the strong, the individual in conflict with the larger power such as fate, and struggle between chaos and authority. [Manvell, pg. 13.] How ironic that films would these themes were to be soon replaced with the films of the NAZI state--the protypical totalitarian state. In reference to the Nietzchean superman, the protagonist in expressionist often struggled against higher powers and intellects. In contrast to the thematic elements of denial of substance, expressionismís carefully constructed, the sets, arranged lighting, distortion of images, showed that the director, in his shaping of realism, was representative of man, who was able to freely shape his society and nature, gaining quick acceptance among the German public [Kracauer, pg. 68.]


Reflective of the larger German attitude, the expressionist directors preferred the indoor studio, with itís artificial environment to the outer world, with itís random occurrences [Kracauer, pg. 74.]

Seminal Films

he Weimar film industry was epoch-making in a variety of ways. The expresonistic motif was embraced by middle class Germany, with its "inherent need for order and decorum)," when political freedom was thrust upon it in a relatively short period of time [Kracauer, pg. 59.] "The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari" and "Metropolis" are often seen as the seminal films of German expressionism, and in each there are the different aspects of the movement. "The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari" represented the irrational, primitive side of the human psyche, while the optimism for the future was seen in Metropolis [Ott, pg. 28.] Between the these two poles of expressionism comes "The Last Laugh" which creates an implacable fate which is turned away at the whim of the creator of the piece. In these three films can be seen the various aspects of the German mindset at the time of the Weimar Republic and how they reflected the development of expressionism in relation to German society. The sense of loss of control that pervaded the German people found a perfect outlet in the creation of truths through imagery in expressionist film. Notable is the starl exopressionism of the eimar era compred to the senimentality of the Heimat films that began to appear in the NAZI er.

Berlin: Symphony of a Gret City (1927)

One of the most famous German silent films was "Berlin: Symphony of a Great City" released in 1927. It contains wonderful images from an entire day in Berlin in 1927 and includes several interesting details of boys' clothes. The first scene shows two boys entering their school for classes in the morning carrying bookbags. One boy wears a flat cap, a belted jacket, knee pants, and long black stockings. The second photograph is a Berlin street scene showing a boy of about 14 wearing a cardigan sweater buttoned all the way up to his neck. He also wear knee pants and long black stockings.

(The) Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1919)

The German Government during World War I created a state run film company called Ufa in 1917. In 1919, Ufa produced its most startling and controversial film entitled, Das Cabinet des Dr. Caligari, directed by Robert Wiene. Caligari is a film that turned limitations into virtues. It is a macabre fantasy with its classic illustration of expressionism revealing a grand departure from screen naturalism. The storyline emerges from through the imagination of an inmate in an insane asylum who recounts for another inmate a strange tale of a somnambulist who commits a series of murders while under the spell of a mad doctor.

By asserting that the individual had control over his circumstances, expressionism reassured the German people that they were not subject to whims of fate. The first instance of expressionist film to come out of the Weimar Republic was The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari. Released in 1919, The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari was the first seminal expressionist film of the Weimar Republic. [Ott, pg. 78.] In The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari , a somnambulist murders innocents while under the control of a hypnotist, Dr. Caligari . An investigation ensues, and the protagonist discovers Dr. Caligari to be the director of an insane asylum. Forced to observe the corpse of his pawn, the somnambulist, the insane Dr. Caligari is lead away in a straitjacket. In its original form, written by Hans Janowitz and Carl Mayer, the film would have ended at this point, however, the director, Robert Weine, added anterior and posterior scenes which changed the crux of the story entirely. [Kracauer, pg. 66.] The complete film begins with a protagonist of the film taking the role of the narrator and ends with the revelation that it is in fact the narrator/protagonist who is insane and resides in the asylum run by the altruistic Dr. Caligari, who is working to cure the protagonist of his affliction. Originally intended in the initial version of The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari was the study of control and the individual, manifested in the relationship between the semi-conscious somnambulist and his master, Dr. Caligari. [Kracauer, pg. 67.]

In an allegory against absolute authority, Dr. Caligari was meant by the original authors to represent the German government while the somnambulist was a symbol the common man, forced into the military service as a mindless automaton. [Kracauer, pg. 67.] However, in the final version of the film, the battle between authority and chaos is seen, in which Caligariís authority is finally triumphant over anarchy which is represented by various aspects of insanity within the film. [Kracauer, pg. 74.] This revised version of the Cabinet of Dr. Caligari begins and ends with control comfortably in the hands of the learned, elder Dr. Caligari. [Kracauer, pg. 67.] By preserving the original story as the tale of a madman, "Weineís The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari glorified authority and convicted its antagonist of madness." [Kracauer, pg. 67.] The dichotomy between these two differing themes is noticeable, and representative of the conflict between the German individual and the society in which he resided. While one side believed in the liberation of man, the other called for a return to absolute authority.

Throughout The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari, the willful distortion of objects abound to create a mood of anxiety. The sets in Caligari follow no precepts of form put forth by reality, there are almost no perpendicular or parallel lines that adhere to the audiences conceptions of order. The country town in which the film is set primarily consists of "dark twisting back alleys boxed in by crumbling houses whose inclined facades keep out all daylight." [Eisner, pg. 21.] Inanimate objects such as chairs and lamps take on human qualities, creating a sense of unceasing scrutiny in the audience [Eisner, pg. 24.] Equally important in the film is the usage of light and shadow. In keeping with the dark tone of the film, shadows were painted directly onto the backdrops and sets. [Ott, pg. 49.] The first glimpse the audience has of the somnambulist is in a shadowy sideshow tent where the solitary light is placed on the pawn of Dr. Caligari. By isolating solitary human figures in areas of light, and surrounding them with illogical representations of reality, the film attempted to show the futility of the single man attempting to solve the eternal problem of tyranny versus chaos [Kracauer, pg. 74.]

The Last Laugh, 1924

The plight of the solitary man is also examined in The Last Laugh, in which , an elderly man who derives a small, but gratifying measure of dignity in his existence from his position and uniform as a doorman, is stripped of his rank because of his age and inability to perform his tasks. The film, directed by Friedrich Wihelm Murnau and released in 1924 studied the psychological effect of the doorman's humiliating demotion to lavatory attendant and his subsequent ostracism from his family [Ott, pg. 63.] In an openly contrived and ironic twist of fate, the man is made rich through an inheritance given to him through the will of an eccentric millionaire, in arbitrary circumstances. Before this final, optimistic sequence unfolds, the only captions to appear in the entire film inform the audience that the author has given the doorman ironical twist of the plot, out of pity for the broken man. [Kracauer, pg. 101.]

In his uniform the doorman is a symbol of power in the poverty-ridden tenement house in which he lives. The air of authority created by his uniform instills a sort of awe in his neighbors, which the doorman revels in. [Kracauer, pg. 101.] His authority is solely based on the resplendence of his uniform, which symbolizes the grandeur of the cosmopolitan life to the tenement dwellers and when he is demoted, the former doorman is no longer representative of the upper world. [Kracauer, pg. 100.] Thus the influence that former doorman exerted upon his fellow residents was based on the empty respect of his perceived higher social position. Once his position is compromised the former doorman is met with derision from those who had once greeted him with reverence . Representing the destruction of the Imperial dream, Murnau captured the humiliation of the German people in the ignoble fate of the elderly doorman stripped of his dignity.

To capture the trauma of the protagonistís fall, Murnau makes creative use of lens distortion and light. After his demotion, the former doorman is unable to accept his fate and, under cover of night steals the uniform that once was his. As he makes his way through the dark halls of the hotel, he adheres to the shadows, hiding in the dark to escape the night watchman. The lamp of the night watchman takes on a harsh, threatening air as it moves ever closer to where the doorman is hidden. [Eisner, pg. 214.] It is the truth that the light represents the shadows in which the doorman hides within only serve to delude him further. When the doorman returns to his tenement after word spreads of his demotion, the audience sees the ridicule of his neighbors through his eyes allowing for some groundbreaking camerawork. [Eisner, pg. 213.] The camera sways as he makes his way past a sea of faces gaping with mocking laughter. As the doorman continues his long walk to his tenement, the camera blurs and the faces are distorted into a barely human sea of "gargantuan laughter- enormous gaping mouths, immense black cavities twisted in infernal mirth." [Eisner, pg. 218.] The doormanís confusion at the capriciousness of his fate and situation manifests itself in the tentativeness of his gaze, as he moves from one face to the next in a desperate search for any offerings of sympathy. His decreased position at the hotel is seen by his neighbors as a rejection of them by the outer world [Kracauer, pg. 100. ]

Faust, 1926

The final two Expressionist films were made at Ufa studios. They were F. W. Murnauís Faust, 1926 and Fritz Langís Metropolis, 1927.

Metropolis, 1927

The difference in class structure is used further as a vehicle for cinematic exploration in 1927, in director Fritz Langís, Metropolis. This film tells of a futuristic city in which a minority of pleasure-seekers live off the labors of an much larger underclass of workers. [Ott, pg. 74.] The son of the leader of the city, becomes aware of the plight of the toilers through the efforts of a daughter of a worker, whom he falls in love with(Ott, pg. 74). The leader of the city, threatened by the discontent of the laborers, arranges for an android replica of the girl to incite the workers into destroying themselves(Ott, pg. 75) . After observing his son risking his own life to save the lives of the workers, the leader of the metropolis has a change of heart and is reconciled with his peons (Ott, pg. 75). In the final reconciliation of the workers with the master of Metropolis, the son becomes the link between the two disparate groups, as the final words show "There can be no understanding between the hand and brain unless the heart acts as a mediator." The use of the robot as an antagonist parallels the symbolism of the toiling masses of workers in showing the loss of humanity of a peoples made into virtual slaves by the demands of a minority living in decadence. The uplifting conclusion of Metropolis with its promise of a new order, in which man was still supreme, and not bound by any limitations appealed to the many expressionist who believed, initially, "that defeat and revolution would lead to a regenerated society founded on peace and social equality." [Ott, pg. 28)" To create a sense of subservience to the greater production, the masses of workers are initially portrayed as being of one entity. From the arrangement of the drab housing complexes to their identical costumes of no particular symbolism, the workers have no individualism, each moves with a shuffling gait, heads bowed in spiritless, silent acquiescence. [Eisner, pg. 225.] While doing their individual duties, the robot like qualities of the workers are so exaggerated that they become integrated into the machines which they operate, their arms take the part of the mechanical arms of their machines and their bodies seem to become ruled by the measured movements of their facet of the larger machine. [Eisner, pg. 229.] The workers perform each motion as if by rote, moving in preset patterns in time to an unseen cadence. Even when the workers rebel, they stay as one mob, ruled by the whims of a single person, seeking domination even in the face of independence.

Also noteworthy in Metropolis, is the use of light. Light is alternate used to represent salvation and implacable doom. In a chase scene between a deranged scientist the aforementioned daughter of a worker, that occurs through catacombs deep beneath Metropolis, the darkness offers refuge for the fleeing party as an obscuring agent in which one can hide. As in The Last Laugh, the single circle of light from the pursuerís lamp takes on an ominous tone as it inexorably finds itís target. Soon it is not her searchers that she is that running from but the light. However once the chase is over and the captured party is placed within a cell, a skylight, with the light that shines through, offers the only hope of salvation for the prisoner. Here, instead of fleeing from the light, she clambers up towards the brightness in hopes of escape. In a matter of minutes, what once represented doom, is changed to be the way of escape.
Other Notable Films

"Nosferatu" was the first vampire movie, "The Blue Angel" (with Marlene Dietrich and Emil Jannings) and "M" with Peter Lorre are classics.

Decline of expressionism

The down fall of the Expressionism movement was expense of final films, the departure of Expressionist directors to Hollywood and a changing cultural climate. There would arise a trend known for its departure from the contorted emotionalism of Expressionistic film to a more realistic and cool-headed social criticism. It never truly became a movement, but did signal the demise of the Expressionists.

Kammerspiel Films

Another style to emerge in the Weimar film industry was called Kammerspiel films. These too were a far contrast to Expressionists dramas. Each film concentrated on a few characters and explored a crisis in their lives in detail. The emphasis was on slow evocative acting and telling details rather than extreme expressions of emotions. Kammerspiel films avoided the fantasy and legendary elements so common in Expressionism; these were films set in everyday, contemporary surroundings, and often covered a short span of time. Kammerspiel films used no intertitle cards and relied on simple situations, details of acting and setting, and symbolism to convey the narrative events.

Impact on American Movies

The influence of Weimar films, especially the expressionist films, and their explorations of light can be seen in genres such as film noir and detective films, especially in films such as "Double Indemnity" and "The Maltese Falcon". In itís affinity for symbolism in characters, objects and surroundings, expressionism focused attention on the traditions passed to film from stage. Its manifestations of psychological states in a visual context allowed for the exploration of the nuances of other, film specific areas of study, such as the montage, deep-focus and the unchained camera or roving point of view. Of course part of this influence came from th influx of talent from Germany. Many actors, producers, and technicians fled Germnany after the NAZIS sezed power (1933).

Decline of the German Cinema

Germany during the Weimar era had one of the leading film industries in the world. It copmeted with Hollywood. Even after the NAZIs took power, Germany continued t have one of the most important European film industries. This was in part because of the importance of the German economy and the destribution system established set up during the Weimar era. Technically the Germans outclassed all but the German and French cinena, Even so, fe of the films made during the NAZI era are considered important film classics. This was in part because of the scores of directors, actors, composers and technicians ended up in Hollywood after Hitler came to power. The German film industry never fully recovered. Modern German films do well in Germany, but few German films have much of an impact outside of Germany.

Weimar Artistic Inovation

The Weimar period was very innovative, not only in the film industry, but also other fields like expressionist paintings, Bauhaus school of design, music by Kurt Weill ("Three Penny Opera"). Only the musical scene remained at a high level in Nazi Germany, because Furtwšngler, BŲhm, Karajan and Richard Strauss stayed on. Of the great composers only Mendelssohn was Jewish, his music was no longer heard in the Third Reich and his statue in Leipzig had been removed.

Children's Clothing

No information yet is available on the films which showcased children's films during the Weimar era. HBC does not yet know of any Weimar films tht featured children. Children seen to have had more of arole, both in the NAZI era aand in West Germany after World War II. I'm less sure about East Germany.


de Jonge, Alex. Weimar Chronicles. New York : Paddington Press Ltd.,1978.

Eisner, Lotte H. Haunted Screen. Los Angelos: University of California Press,1969

Gray, Peter. Weimar Culture. New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1968.

Kracauer, Siefried. Caligari to Hitler. Princeton: Princeton University Press,1966.

Manvell, Roger, and Frankell, Heinrich. German Cinema, New York, Praeger Publishers, 1971.

Ott, Frederick W. The Great German Films. Seacaucus, NJ: 1986.

Seminal Films

(The) Cabinet of Dr. Caligari, Decla-Film Ges. Holtz and Co., 1920

(The) Last Laugh, Union-Film der UFA, 1924

Metropolis, UFA, 1927


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