* Christianity -- Protestant Reformation developing conditions country trends Scotland

The Protestant Reformation: Scotland

Scottish Protestant Reformation
Figure 1.--This painting depicts thev opponents of King Charles I gathered at Greyfriars Kirk in Edinburgh to sign the National Covenant (February 28, 1638). They were stedfastky opposed to the King’s 'popish' ecclesiastical reforms and oversight of the church. They were thus known as Covenanters and were organized by noblemen, ministers, and lawyers who defended the legitimacy of political resistance to support the true religion (Reformed Protestantism) against criticism from Scottish royalists andcimposition by the Ling. The artist is William Allan. We vare not sure when it was apinted, perhaos the 1830s.

While the Reformation in England was initaited by the monarchy, in Scotland in occurred in spite of the opposition of the monarchy, although supported by the English.The Reformation was preceeded by a rising sence of popular disatisgaction with the Catholic clergy. Both Lollardy and Wycliffe in England had influenced some. Merchants and the minor nobility were the first to embrace the Reformation, not only for religius reasons, but as a vehicle for independe from both England and France. Protestant teaching reached Scotland only a few years after Martin Lurther launched the Reformation. As early as 1522 the Royal Government was attempting to stop the circulation of Luthern books. Early Reformation leaders like Patrick Hamilton were adherents of Luther, but John Knox led the Scottish Reformation to a Calvinist confession. John Knox lived for a time in Geneva and was influenced by John Calvin. He became the driving force of the Reformation in Scotland. Knox was the first spokesman for Presbyterianism. Knox persuaded the Scottish Parliament to adopt a confession and book of discipline modeled on those developed by Calvin in Geneva (1560). Parliament created the Scottish Presbyterian Church governed by local kirks. Mary Queen of Scotts attempted to attempted to reinstate the Catholic Church, but was driven to exile in England (1568). Her claim to the throne and Catholcism made her a dangerous figure. Her infant son James, the future James I of England, was kept in Scotland and eventually tutored by Presbyterian scholars. The Catholic Church was reduced to minor importance in Scotland, except for a few disticts in the remote Highlands. James and his son Charles I attempted to unite the Church of England and Scotland, but were resisted by the Scotts zealously defending the kirk. Charles was suspected of harboring Catholic sentiment. While not intending to do so, the Scotts' defense of their kirk from Charle's invading English Army resulted in the Bishops Wars (1639-40) which led directly to the English Civil War (1642-51)


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Created: 6:37 PM 10/25/2020
Last updated: 6:37 PM 10/25/2020