We have begun to collect information on German institutions careing for children. Our informnation is very limited, but we have begun to archive some information. The most obvious is schools. We notice a variety of instutions unique to Germany although we see similar facilities in some other European countries. They seem to have been related to the schools. The children during the summer or other school vacations went on group outings to various vacation spots. Group homes were established there for the children. There were also charity institutions, although here our information is limited. We are not sure about work houses as was the case in America and Britain. We do know that there were orphanages. Here there was a substantial need after the two world wars, especially World War II. There were also health facilities like sanotariums. Another type of institutional facility were reformatories for youth offenders.
The most obvious institution careing for children is the schools. Germany has been a world leader in education and today operates one of the world's outstanding edicational system. The German educatuon system dates from the middle ages. With the exception of the NAZI era when the education system deteriirated severely, the country has cobnstantly been at the forefront of European educational development. German schools have never required school uniforms as in Britain and other European countries. Even during the height of the military's popularity in Imperial Germany or the NAZI years, there was no great interest in uniforms for school children--a fact some observers find curious. A specific school uniform seems to be more an Anglo-Saxon/Brtitish Empire institution. As a result, there is no traditional German schoolboy dress as is the case of British schoolboy caps and blazers or Italian and French schoolboy smocks. Two different school systems developed in Germany after the war, a democraric sysrem in the the Russian occupation zone and a democratic system in the American, English, and French zones. Post war Germans have been especially ill-disposed toward school uniforms. Some parents, faced with rising school discipline problems are beginning to reevaluate their long-held opinions on school uniform. The two post-war systems were merged after the fall of the Berlin Wall and the unificatio of Germany in 1989-90.
We notice a variety of instutions unique to Germany although we see similar facilities in some other European countries. They seem to have been related to the schools. Many Germam schools organize cultural experiences for the students after the school year in the summer. The primary purpose of these experiences seem to be cultural. Itvaffords the children t learn someething about other areas of the country. Often it incvolves city children spending time in more rural ares of the country. It also has something of an American summer camp experience, excet that the setting and accomodations are ormally not rustic. Usually a teacher from the school will accompany and supervice the children and youth. Group homes were established there for the children.
There were a variety of German charity institutions, although here our information is limited. Similar institutions are well described by American and British historians. We know, however, very little about the instituions in Germany. Presumably this is because much of the literature is in German. We are not sure, for example, about work houses. They were very important in America and Britain, but we do not know about Germany. We do know that there were orphanages. We do have some limited information on orphanages. Here there was a substantial need after the two world wars, especially World War II. We know many children were cared for in orphanages affter World war I. We are less sure what occurred after World War II. There were also health facilities like sanotaria. We notice the royal family helped to found some of these sanatoria. Many were supported by religious charities. Furing the NAZI era they were nostly taken over by the NAZI Party and its umbrella charity organization. Some of the sanatoria staff were implicated in the nototious NAZI T4 eutenasia program.
Another type of institutional facility were reformatories for youth offenders.
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