Child care institutions varied from country to country. The basic typew of institutions (charity, health, school, and reforitories) are found in most countries. Their nature differs from country to country. There are also some institutions that are characteristic to specific countries. The appeosches, conditions, facilities, and operations at these institutions also varied from country to country. Also the chronological time-line for the development of these facilities varied over time.
There are a wide range of institutions which are involved with children. The most obvious is of course schools. And America created one of the most succesful public schools in the world which help to educate no only American-born children, but to being immigrant children into the American mainstream. America did not create public education, although few countries did it as well. While American schools are similar to other countries, one destinctive school type ws the military boarding school. Tragically that system today has lost much of its vitality. One institution which America help to found was the summer camp. The initial idea was to get city kids out into the fresh air and sunshine. Both the YMCA and the Boy Scouts played an important role in the summer camp movement. The American summer was an institution subsequently adopted in many other countries. We also notice different kinds of charity borganizations like orphanages. Mostvstates have done away with orphanages, but they played an important role in the 19th and early-20th century. We do not see as many health sanatoriums as in Europe. Another type of institutional facility were reformatories for youthful offenders.
Boys were involved in a range of institutions, many of which had destinctive uniforms or other clothing and associated dress standards. The most important of these institutions for children was of course schools. Schools of various types has existed such antiquity, but mostly for the elite. This began to change in Europe but at first in Germany with the Reformation. Schools in the 19th century schools became increasingly public institutions. England did not lead the way, but by the end of the century had a fine public school system. England has had a huge impact on educational around the world. This is in part because of its empire and the English lanuage. England did not, however lead the way in modern public meaning free state eduction. Here the leaders were America and Germany (18th centuy). Schooling was offered to all children with no required fees. The state schools did not have uniforms. Private schools did, but not the state primaries until after World War II. Compulsorty attendabce laws were introduced. Other important institutions which played important roles in the lives of children included: charity, health, recreational, reformatory institutions, and youth groups of various types. The English chariry institutioin sare some of best studied in the works. At the time, it was widely believed that immortality and poor character were the primary vause of ppverty. Since sickness and poverty often appeared together, providing spiritual guidance and moral uplift to the ill, in addition to offering food and clothing was seen as critical to helping the poor. It was one reason that religious groups became so involved. Ther was seen a need to sepoarate the needy into 'deserving' versus 'undeserving' individuals. This involvedf charitable organizations and hospitals (most with religious afiliations) decide who to aid. Children were a whole different category, many like Charles Dickens considered them innocent victims of their parents' bad choices and/or irresponsible lifestyles. They were this seen by a growing majority as unquestiinably deserving of assistance. Thus aiding them resulted in limited controversy. Charity institutions with increasingly human additudes have changed greatly over time. Youth groups were especially important in the 20th century.
We have begun to collect information on German institutions careing for children. Our informnation is very limited, but we have begun to archive some information. The most obvious is schools. We notice a variety of instutions unique to Germany although we see similar facilities in some other European countries. They seem to have been related to the schools. The children during the summer or other school vacations went on group outings to various vacation spots. Group homes were established there for the children. There were also charity institutions, although here our information is limited. We are not sure about work houses as was the case in America and Britain. We do know that there were orphanages. Here there was a substantial need after the two world wars, especially World War II. There were also health facilities like sanotariums. Another type of institutional facility were reformatories for youth offenders.
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