American boys began wearing knee pants after the mid-19th century. We see younger boys wearing knee pants in the 1860s, oftern rather long knee pants cut at calf level. The the fashion did not become widespread for even older boys until the 1890s. Early knee pants were long, often cut at calf level. Knee pants by the 1880s began to be cut shorter at knee level. By the 1890s even older boys were wearing then. This varied, however, from family to family. Not all boys wore knee pants, although they were very common. Social class factors were involved. In the 1910s knickers began replacing knee pants, but kneepants were still worn in the early 1920s, but primary by younger school-age boys. Knee pants were commonly brought as part of a suit. They could be purchased separately. But the area of catalog space devoted to suits as compared to just the trousers suggest that knee pants were mostly purchased as suits. Wearing suits was much more common at the time than currently. Early knee pants were long, often cut at calf level. Knee pants by the 1880s began to be cut shorter and by the 90s knee level was the standard. The cut of knee pants tended to be rather form fitting. They were often referred to as straight-leg knee pants into contrast to the more baggy knickers. The age of American boys wearing knee pants varied over time. At first in the mid-19th century they were worn by younger boys. By the 1890s even older boys were wearing knee-length knee pants. This began to change again during the the 1910s when mostly younger boys wore knee pants, older boys more commonly wore knockers or long pants. In the 1910s knickers began replacing kneepants, but kneepants were still worn in the early 1920s, but primary by younger school-age boys. Knee pants were very widely worn by American boys. This varied, however, from family to family. Social class factors were involved. Some boys wore long pants even in grade school. Demofraphics was also a factor. We see more rural boys wearing long pants than in the city.
Defining knee pants is somewhat complicated. This is because they are essentially short pants. The two are divided chronologally. You see knee pants mostly in the 19th century and short pants in the 20th century, especilly after World War I. The time-line differs somewhat from country to country. You do not see the term short pants used much in the 19th and you do not see the term knee pants used much acter World war I. In between from the turn-of-th 20th century to World War I, we se terms like knee pants, short pants, and knickrs being used interchangeably. I supose that knee pants and short pants could be used interchangeably, but there were some difference. Knee pants were worn at lengths from the knee down to about the calf. By the 1890s, actual knee-length hd become standard. They also common had decorative buttons, usually three at the knee hem. They were used presumably to represent the buttons on 18th century breeches, but I have no idea why. This convention was common in both Europe and America. Short pants on the other hand varied in length from the knee up. Early short pants were the same length as knee pants, but gradually got shorter. Short pants were quite short in the 1970s and 80s. Modern short pants, however, have gotten much longer. They are always called shorts rather than short pants. Most pants cn clerly be identified as knee [ants or short pants, but during the transition from knee pants to short pants during the 1910s this is sometimes difficult.
Knee pants appeared in the mid-19th century. They were first worn by younger boys and cut rather long, often to calf level. They gradually increased in popularity subsequently during the 19th century. They continued to be quite long and were mostly worn by yonger boys even in the 1880s. We see many boys still wearing long pants in the 1880s. This changed dramatically in the 1890s. They were wideky worn by America boys by the 1890s. Most boys wore them. More boys and we think older boys wore knee pants than in any other country. American boys began wearing knnepants after the mid-19th century. We see younger boys wearing kneepants in the 1860s, but the fashion did not become widespread for even older boys until the 1890s. A good example is an unidentified boy from Boston, Massachusetts about 1890. Another example is a Chicago boy, Robert Mason Hamilton, in 1897. Kneepants become shorter in the 1890s, commonly cut to knee lengths. Kne pants were almost universal at the turn of the 20th century. A good example is two New York City boys. Knee pants cointinued to be widekly wrn in the 1900s. A good example is Harry Lodge about 1908. Styles changed dramatically in the 1910s. We see boys mostlt wearing knickers by the 1910s, although some younger boys still wore knee pants into the early 20s.
Knee pants were commonly brought as part of a suit. During the years that knee pants were popular, boys commonly wore suits, even to school or for occassions that we would tiday see as casual. Knee pants could be purchased separately. But the area of catalog space devoted to suits as compared to just the trousers suggest that knee pants were mostly purchased as suits. Wearing suits was much more common at the time than currently. Knee pants were commonly worn with several different styles of suits. One of the most popular were Norfolk suits, but we see both single and double-breasted jackets as well as collar buttoning kackets. And younger boys might wear Fauntleroy jackets.
Early knee pants were long, often cut at calf level. We call them knee pants only because as they became more common in the late-80s and began to be worn by older boys, thiscwas the standard length. These longish knee pants were common in the 1860s, 70s, and into the 80s. Often they look more like out-grown long pants, perhaps some were. Knee pants by the 1890s began to be cut shorter, especially by the end of the decade. We note that the Little Lord Fauntleroy suits appearing in the mid-80s were generally knee pants suit cut just below the knee, but these were mostly youngrr, pre-school boys. Only in the 1880s do we begin to see actual knee-length knee pants, but they were not common for older boys untiol the 90s. A good example is Eddie Wilson, a New York boy in 1882. We still see, however, knee pants covering the knees. This coninued in to the early-90s. A good example is an Ohio boy in 1890. Knee pants by the mid-1890s had become almost universal, at least in urban areas. The knee level length became the standard. This continued to be the case through the 1900s until replaced by knickers.
The cut of knee pants caried over time. In contradt to knickers, knee pants at the turn-of-the 20th century tended to be rather form fitting. They were often referred to as straight-leg knee pants into contrast to the more baggy knickers. This varied some what. We note some with wide legs, but this cut tended to be more common in the 1860s than later in the decade.
Buttons were important with knee pants, both stylisitically and fuctionally. The most obvious usage was the buttons at the knee hem--usually three buttond arranged vertically. We these buttons commoly in the photographic record. The origins of this were the knee breeches commonly worn in the 18th century. There were no elasticized hosiery tops or elasticized stocking supporters. The buttons were used to hold up the stockings men and boys wore at the time. The hem buttons on boys' knee pants worn in the late-19th and early-20th century were mostly decorative, sewn on without button holes. It is difficult to tell in many avaiable images, but it certaibly looks like it. Now some knee pants were done with knee hem buttons that actually worked, but our asessment is that this was the rxception rather than the rule. In add ition to the mostly decorative buttons, fuctionla buttons ertr used to hold the pants up and/or to hold up a front flap or a fly. Buttons on blouses and stocking supporters fitted into button holes at the waist. There were also button on the waist to which suspenders could be attached. Unlike the other buttons mentioned here, this was also the case for men's trousers.
Most of the knee pants we notice were done in dark colors which of course made sence for active boys. The boy here is a good example (figure 1). White and light colors are just asking for laundry trouble. And until well into the 20th century, laundry meant a major work load for mother, although before modern laundry detergents, mothers could use bleach for white commons. The black-and-white photography available during the 19th and much of the 20th century do not provide color information, although white and black can often be destinguished. Catalog information show that the most important colors were black, brown, grey, and navy (dark) blue. Black and navy blue would look nearly identical in a photograph. Some catalogs have very detailed color information in the ad copy. A good example is the Work Brothers who offered suits and knee pants in 1893. We even have a few color catalog illustration by the turn-of-the 20th century. Often there were mixtures like grey blue. Of course black and white photography does not help much in assessing colors. We note white becoming popular around the turn-of-the 20th century and into the erarly-20th century. This was often just for knee pants and not a full suit with jackets. White was used for dress up occasions, primarily for younger boys. We see both fancy blouse and knee pants outfits as well as tunic suits.
Suit decorations like embroidery, frogging, piping, and other elements were mostly on the jackets. But we see some some decoration on the pants/trousers as well. The primary decoration we see are a narrow vertical stripe, but these were not the only decoration. We also see emroidery, commonly matching embroidery on the jacket. We note lace being used, but this was not very common. And the pantes involved seem more like pntalettes than pants/trousers. The elaborate decirations we note are mostly during the 1870s. This was true of both the jackets and the pants. We see some decoration during the 60s and 80s. but the 70s was by far the most common decade. This is interesting as we see very plain jackets and pants in the 1860s. What caused such a sharp fashion shift we have no idea. We are guessing changes in Europe were primarily resoinsible, but we have no real idea at this time. By the 80s we mostly seethe decorations on Little Lord Fauntleroy suits, almost all done with knee pants. The decorations are not always immedately apparent as they were usually dark-colored embroidery done on dark suits. There were decorations on knickers and long pants, but we see them on knee pants more than other pants type. This was especially true of the most extensive decortion meaning mbroidery.
The age of American boys wearing knee pants varied over time. At first in the mid-19th century, knee pants and nloomer knickers were worn by younger boys. We see either pre-school boys are early-primary children wearing them. The age of the boys wearing knee pants gradualy increased. By the 1890s most boys amd many teenagers were weazring knee pants. We see by the turn-of-the 20th century even some older teenagers were wearing lnee pants. The knee-length knee pants became standard for both boys and teenagers. We see boys of all ages wearing them. A good example is 9-year old Harvey Eldridge Hannaford. This began to change again during the the 1900s. By the end of the decade most boys were wearing knickers. Knee pants became seen as old fashioned. In the 1910s knickers essentially replaced kneepants. Knee pants fid not disappear all together. We note in the 1910s that some younger boys continued to wear knee pnts rather than knockers. We are not entirely why this age bifurcation occurred or how common it was, but we do notice catalogs ciontinued to offer knee pants suits, modtly for younger boys. During the 1910s mostly younger boys wore knee pants, older boys more commonly wore knickers or to a lesser extent long pants. Kneepants were still worn in the early-1920s, but almost entirely by younger school-age boys. This only continued a few yeats. By the mid-20s we no longer see knee pants. Younger boys wore either short pants or knickers.
Knee pants were very widely worn by American boys. This varied, however, from family to family. Social class factors were involved. Some boys wore long pants even in grade school. Demographics was also a factor. We see more rural boys wearing long pants than in the city.
We notice shortened-length pants peimarily being worn by affluent families throughout most of the 19th century. This only began to change when we note boys of all social classess weaing kneepants. This had become standard by the 1890s for virtually all boys. We even note knee pants being worn in poor rural communities. A good example is an isolated Tennessee school in 1902.
American boys commonly wore knee pants with long stockings. Note that Kazoo Suspender waists, popular in the United Stastes during the 1910s and early 1920s, were sold in sizes up to age 18,
which is a good indication that boys wore knee pants until that age.
See the attached Kazoo ad, which appeared in the Ladies Home Journal (September, 1921, p. 120), which says that suspender waists for long
stockings were for boys 4 to 18. The long stockings were commonly chosen to match the color of the suit. Black long stockings became increasingly common in the 1890s.
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