Haj Amin el-Husseini had been an officer in the Ottoman Army. He turned to school teaching. The British sentenced him to 10 years of prison for fomenting anti-Jewish riots (1920). After his election to Grand Mufti of Jerulselum under suspicious circumstances he was pardoned by British High Commissioner Sir Herbert Sammuels. Until Husseini the post of Grand Mufti was filled by a Koranic scholar, he turned the post into a political platform Husseini became a strident spokesmen against British rule and virulent anti-Semitism. He set up hit squads to attack both political opponents and isolated Jewish settlements. [Porch, p. 22.] The Palestinians Arabs have a notable record of choosing poor leaders and backing failed foreign groups (Hitler, the Soviets, and Saddam). This uneviable record began with Husseini. Reduced Jewish immigration in the 1920s, the rise of the National Party, and a new British administration caused a reversal of Husseini's fortunes. Renewed Jewish immigration because of the rise of Fascism in Europe resulted in renwed friction between the Arabs and Jews.
Haj Mohammed Effendi Amin el Husseini was born in Jerusalem (1893-97). (We note various dates for his birth.)
The Husseni family was both wealthy and influential. They were also devoutly Muslim. Jerusalem was then the capital of Ottoman Palestine. His grandfather Mustapha and his half-brother Kemal had both been the Muftis of Jerusalem. They never presented themselves as Grand Muftis despite the fact that both had considerable religious training. Tahir al-Husayni was Amin's father and at the time the Mufti of Jerusalem. He was also outspokenly critical of Zionist immigraion. The al-Husseini clan acquired their inflence from landowners in southern Palestine, especially around Jerusalem. Thirteen members of the clan had been appointed mayors of Jerusalem (1864-1920). Husseini while still a teenager accompanied his mother Zainab to Mecca (1913). This was made aekatively easy pilgrmige because of the recent contruction of the Hejaz Railwat. He thus was entitled to and received the honorific title of Hajj.
Amin al-Husseini attended a Qur'anic school (kuttub). He then attended an Ottoman government secondary school (rŁshidiyye) in Jerusalem where he learned Turkish. He also attended a Catholic secondary school run by French missionaries, the Catholic FrŤres. Here he learned French. He also studied at the Alliance Israťlite Universelle with its non-Zionist Jewish director Albert Antťbi. At the time there were no universities in Palestine. Thus Husseini attended the Al Azhar University in Cairo, Egypt. Following the family tradition, he studied Islamic philosophy and law. He only attended Al Azhar for only a year. He also studied at the Dar al-Da'wa wa-l-Irshad, under Rashid Rida, a salafi intellectual. Rida becane Amin's mentor. The family groomed him to hold religious office. His education was typical of the Ottoman secular effendi. Husseini took more interest in politics than religio. He only donned a religious turban after being appointed mufti (1921). Just prior to World War I, Husseini studied at the School of Administration in Istanbul. This was the most secular of the variou Ottoman academic institutions.
Husseini was commissione as an artillery officer in the Ottoman Army. He was assigned to the 47th Brigade stationed in Smyrna. near the city of Izmir. This was a Greek city in Turkey far from World War I battlefields. His commanding officer approved a 3-month disability leave and returned to Jerusalem (November 1916). He was recovering from an illness when the city was finally taken by the British after a long campaign (December 1917). The British with the assistance of the Arab (Sherifian) Army conquered the rest of Ottoman-controlled Palestine and Syria(1918). Arab Palestinian recruits hoping to throw off Ottoman rule also participated along with Jewish troops. Ending his assistance with the Ottomans, Husseini became a Sherifian officer and helped recruit troops to serve in Faisal bin Al Hussein Bin Ali El-Hashemi's army during the Arab Revolt. The British employed him as a recruiter in Jerusalem and Damascus.
The British recruited withthe understanding that they were fighting in a national effort to liberate their country from Ottoman rule. Nothing to this point suggests Husseini planned to follow his famiky sesires for a religious creer. His interests were increasingly directed toward Arab nationalism. We are not sure just when this became a passion. There was no sign of it while he was becoming an Ottoman effendi. When Husseni returned home after the War it was to a very different Palesine. The fellow Muslim Ottomons were one and the British were in control.
He turned to school teaching after World War I. He taught at the Rashidiya school, near Herod's Gate in East Jerusalem.
The population of Palestine at the time of World War I was largely Palestinian Arab, an estimated 800,000 people. Most were Muslims. There were about 60,000 Jews, many who emigrated from Europe as part of the Zionist movement. Husseini, a devout Muslim, was offended by the Jewish immigrants. It was not only a religious matter. He viewed immigration as zero sum game. He saw each Jewish immigrant as displacing an Arab Muslim. This is of course a very different view than say how America has viewed immigration. It also flies in the face of economic data which shows that Jewish immigration helped revive the Palesinian economy which had been one of the poorest parts of the Ottoman Empire. Hussein was right, however, that Jewish immigration was diluting the Palestinian population and would eventually reach the point tht they could demand political rights. He saw this as a threat to the Palestinian people and Islam. The idea of sharing power and ending Islamic control was totally unacceptable to Husseini. As a still relatively young man, he thus rejected both the Balfour Declaration and the British Mandate in Palestine.
Thus from the very beginning of the British Mandate, Husseini sought to end further Jewish immigration. He founded the Society of Palestinian Youth and began writing articles in Arab newspapers. He shrply criticised the British Mandate and British immigration policies.
He went far further, however, and helped incite riots and attacks on Jews. Husseini ("Nebi musa") and Aref el-Aref, was largely responsible for riots targeting Jews in Jerusalem.
British authorities accused Husseni of inciting Arab riots against attacking Jews crowds in Jerusalem (April 4, 1920). He was tried by a military court with incitement to violence. He subsequently absconded from his bail and was tried in absentia and sentenced to 10 years imprisonment.
The first British High Commissioner for Palestine was Sir Herbert Samuel, a British Jew. Sammuel assumed control (July 1,1920). Samuel sought to build a positive relationship with the Palestinian Arabs and one of the steps he took was pardoning Husseini. Sir Robert Storrs, governor of Jerusalem took the further step of appointing Husseni to the post of Grand Mufti.
This was theoretically an elected post, but Sir Richard essentially rigged the election.
He thought that given the importance of the Husseni family that it would helpful to British interests to reign in Husseni's radicalism. He sought to do this by bringing him into the system with the important post. Husseni was not, however, brought into the system. The British thus made an advocate of violence into the principal religious and political spkesmen for the Palestinian Arabs. The post of Grand Mufti was actually invented by the British. The Mufti while disdaining the British, used that title and several others, includung "eminence." The Islamic scholar, sheikh-and president of his former university, Al-Azbar in Cairo, writes, "In Islam, there are no "eminencies" and no "grand" muftis. Before Allah all men are equal, and it ill behooves a religious teacher to assume such redundant titles... A mufti is a teacher in Islam. And even to that title Hajj Amin should have no claim, for he has not finished a single course of studies here at the University. He owes his appointment to political influence and family connections. He is a politician." As Grand Muffti he had both influence and access to funds. One estimate is 200,000 pounds annually. He used these funds to work against the British. He both financed terror attacks and worked establisjing his personal authority in Palestine. The British also appointed Husseni president of the Supreme Muslim Council, and, later, the Arab Higher Committee. This gave him access to even more resource. The head of the Council, until Husseni obtained the post, was elected every 5 years. Husseni essentially seized control. He used threats to bring others under control. This gave him access to the Council allowance from the British Mandate government. He also gained control over Muslim charitable donatiins as well as donations from abroad. He used these resources to purchase patronage and influence in Palestine. One of Husseini's major projects as Grand Mufti was to begin the renovation of the Al-Aqsa and Omar mosques on the temple mount (Haram as Sharif) in order to build up the importance of Jerusalem as a Muslim holy place and Palestinian national symbol. These projects were noted not only in Palestine and the wider Arab world. It served to generate donations from around the Arab world. The work provide more patronage. The post of Grand Mufti was also important in the wider Islamic world. Jerusalem was a holy city not only to Christians and Jew, but also to Muslims. Jerusalem is the third most important city (after Mecca and Medina) to Muslims because of the Islamic sites. Husseini was both an Arab nationalist and a Muslim fundamentalist. He detested European imperialism and materialism. As an Islamicist he found European seccular life offensive and resisted its implementation in Palestine. Until Husseini the post of Grand Mufti was a position filled by Koranic scholars. Husseini turned the post into a political platform. Husseini became a strident spokesmen against British rule and virulent anti-Semite. He set up hit squads to attack both political opponents and isolated Jewish settlements. [Porch, p. 22.] The Palestinians Arabs have a notable record of choosing poor leaders and backing failed foreign groups (Hitler, the Soviets, Saddam, and now fundamentalists). This uneviable record began with Husseini.
A young Yasser Arafat met the Grand Mufti. Arafat saw the Mufti s a role model and mentor. Biographers report that Arafat (Mohammed el Husseini) was a distant relative, but is not clear that this is the case. Arafat begsan working for the Mufti when he was 16 years old. He was involved in the Mufti's covert terrorist network. He assisted in the smuggling nd purchase of weapons to attack Jewish settlers in Palestine. Sheik Hassan Abu Saud, the mufti of al-Shafaria, also worked with the Mufti. Al Husseni was thus a precursor of both the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and of the Palestinian national struggle. One author writes, "The terrorism, fanaticism, and ruthlessness of that movement reflect the enduring legacy and influence of the Grand Mufti."
The Grand Mufti was active in terror attacks on Palestinian Jews. Attacking the British was aangerous activity. The largey unarmed Jews were softer targets. The Mufti thus instigated Arab riots against Jews (1920, 1921, 1929, and 1936). The Mufti organized the fedayeen, Muslim suicide squads (1921). And the attacks were not limited to the British and Jews.
The Mufti and his associates played a major role in the developing relationship between The Arabs and Jews in Palestine. The Mufti essentially massacred the moderate leadership of the Palestinian Arab community. There was thus no prominant voice for moderation among the Palestinians. This establish a pattern of clan violence. It lso lft the most vociferous epostles of violence and anti-Semitism as the principal political element among Arab Palestinians. Husseini even before his appointment as Grand Mufti built a tradition of Arab pogroms against Jewish civilians, including terrible atrocities against women, children, and the elderly. This helped build a culture of violence among Palestinian Arabs. It also inspired hated among the Jews affected by the violence.
Reduced Jewish immigration in the 1920s, the rise of the National Party, and a new British administration caused a reversal of Husseini's fortunes. Renewed Jewish immigration because of the rise of Fascism in Europe resulted in renwed friction between the Arabs and Jews.
The Mufti appears to have instigated the riots of 1929. We do not yet have much information about these riots.
The Grand Mufti organized an All-Islamic Conference which was held in Jerusalem. The Mufti
made contacts with other muslim leaders in many different countries. Amon others he met Bosnians, both political and religious leaders. Bosnia at the time was part of Yugoslavia. One of the Bosnian leaders was Muslim leader› Mehmed Spaho. He was the president of the Yugoslavian Muslim Organization (Uzeiraga Hadzihasanovic, JMO) and hadzi-Mujaga Merhemic. The Grand Mufti was elected president of the Conference.
The Jerusalem Grand Mufti Haj Amin el-Husseini helped inspire riots and disorders throughout Palestine (April 1936). Six prominent Arab leaders formed the Arab High Command to to protest Zionist activities, especially land purchases and immigration. The Arab High Command organized a general strike of Arab workers and a boycott of Jewish products (April 1936). Soon the initial peaceful actions escalated into attacks on Jews as well as the British authorities. Riots occured in Jerusalem and other cities. The Mufti took over leadership of what came to be called the Arab Revolt. These disorders, seen as the first stage of the "Arab Revolt" continued until November, 1936. Another stage of disorders began in September, 1937. The cause was the Peel Commission which suggested the partition of Palestine. The second stahe was much more violent. There were more intense figting with British forces as well as attacks on more Jewish settlements. The violence was not only aimed at the British and Jews. The Mufti used the violence to settle scores with rival Palestinian factioins. Under the cobver of his Higher Arab Committee he ordered the killing of hundreds of Palestinian leaders in 11 different clans. The Mufti apparently obtained covert support from both The Italian Fascists and German NAZIs. Full details on this are not available. Count Ciano, Mussolini's son-in-law and Italian Foreign Minister, wrote that the Italian Secret Service had funded the Mufti for many years. [Ciano] The NAZI Siecherheitsdienst (SS Secret Service) claimed that without their support, the Palestinians could not have continued the Revolt. The British were hard pressed at the time and actually authorized the arming of the Haganah. The British and the Haganah worked togrther. Effecive operations were organized by Charles Orde Wingate who later became famous in Burma. Wingate established Special Night Squads of Jewish volunteers. The British sucessfully defeated the Arab Revolt. Husseini was able to find refuge in Iraq. The British government cocerned about the British position in the Arab world sought to apease Arab opinion with the 1939 White Paper.
The Deutsches Nachrichten Buro (German News Bureau) had a Palestine office in Jerusalem. The director was Franz Reichert (1933-38). It was here that the first contacts occurred between NAZI operatives and Islamic leaders. The full extent of these contacts are not known. The Mufti is believed to have first approched NAZI agents at the German Consul in Jerusalem (July 21,1937).
He subsequently dispatched an aide to Germany for secret talks in Berlin with NAZI officials.
Secret foreign opperations by NAZI Germany were primarily conducted by Heinrich Himmler's SS. Obergruppenfuehrer Reinhard Heydrich was Himmler's second in line of command to Himmler.
Heydrich commanded the Reich Security Head Office (Reichssicherheitshauptamt,RSHA) and was the head of the Sicherheitsdienst (SD), the SS Security Service. It was Heydrich who oversaw the contacts with the Mufti. He personally dispatched two secret opertives to Palestine,
SS Hauptscharfuehrer Adolf Eichmann and SS Oberscharfuehrer Herbert Hagen (September or October 1937). A principal assignment was to make contact with the Grand Mufti. The NAZI agents pledged aid to the Mufti in his struggle with the British. Both the NAZIS and Italian Fascists are believed to have delivered financial support as well as smuggled arms, but I do not yet have detailed information on this. Another aspect of NAZI mission was to assess the possibility of deporting German Jews to Palestine. One report suggests that the Mufti persuaded him against such an effort. These reports are, however, murky. There is no definitive evidence that the Mufti was still in Palestine to meet with Eichmann.
The Mufti was deeply involved in the escalating viloence in Palestine. One of the actions against the British was the murder of the British commissioner for the Galilee. The British attempted to arrest the Mufti. He and the entire "Higher Arab Committee" to escape arrest slipped across the border into Lebanon (probably September or October 1937). As Lebanon was controlled by the French, he was not safe there. He made his way to Iraq, although I do not have details on this.
The Mufti set up his headquarters in Baghdad, Iraq (1939). He circulated extensively in military and government circles. He established a political departmentÓ that contacted German and Italian agents.
Iraq was a backwater of World War II, but a very important backwater. Iraq was an important in maintaining comminication lines between India and the British position in Egypt protecting the Suez Canal. Even more importantly, Iraq was the principle source of oil for the British Desert Army and the Royal Navy Eastern Mediterranean Squadron. Iraq had been a Turkish Province until seized by the British during World war I. The Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1930 provided for a major British stake in Iraq. The British obtained a stake in the developing Mosul and Kirkuk oil fields and air bases near Baghdad in central Iraq and Basra in the south. To help protect the bases the British had a mixed force which included Iraqis recruited for this purpose. The British were also given transit rights. Britain with these guarantees granted independence to Iraq (1932). Nationalists criticized the treaty, but the Nuri es-Sa'id Governent was pro-British. The royal governent created a small army consisting of of five divisions, a navy consisting of river patrol craft, and a small airforce with obsolete aircraft. When war broke out in Europe (September 1939) Sa'id wanted to support Britain and declare war on Germany, but Iraqi nationalists oppsosed this. Sa'id Government did break off relations. A new Government led by Rashid Ali took power (March 1940). Ali was backed by the pro-Axis Golden Square. The Grand Mufti fleeing British police in Palestine found refuge in Iraq. He immediately began to agitate against the British. The fall of France (June 1940) dramatically changed the military ballance in the Mediterranean and thus the Middle East. Ali initiated various intrigues against Britain. British military successes in the Western Desert caused Ali to resign. The next primeminister acted to breakup the Golden Square. A military coup placed Ali back in power (April 3, 1941). At the same time, spectacular German successes in Yugoslavia, Greece, and Crete convinced the Iraqi nationalists that the Germans would quickly defeat the British.
The Grand Muftin issued a formal fatwa-- "a holy war against Britain" (May 1941). The Mufti's announced the fatwa in Iraq and helped to launch "the pro-Nazi" Iraqi uprising. Ali tore up the 1930 Treaty and struck at the British air base at Habbaniya. The French Vichy authorities controlling Syria assisted Ali by allowing the German and Italians to deliver some assistance. General Wavell, the British Middle East commander was hard pressed at the time. He had to contend with Rommel in the Wester Dessert and the disaterous intervention in Greece. He was reluctant to commit forces to Iraq, but Churchill insisted. An Indian division struck from the south landing at Basara. The Habforce (a British brigade and the Arab Legion) struck west from Jordan. When the revolt failed, Husseini escaped to Tehran.
Reza Shah's Government declared Iran neutral with the outbreak of World War II in Europe. The British suspected that the Shah was sympathetic with the NAZIs who were active diplomatically in Iran. There was considerable sympathy for the NAZIs among the Iranian military. After the coup failed in Iraq, the Grand Mufti sought refuge in Iran and immediately began stiring up trouble for the British. The Iranians rejected British demands to expel Axis agents. After the NAZI invasion of the Soviet Union it became vital to open supply lines to the Soviets. The British and Soviets thus launched a coordinated invasion (August 26, 1941). The Soviets invaded from the north. The British from Iraq where they had defeated a pro-Axis rebellion and by troops landed along hte Persian Gulf. There was only limited resistance. Reza Shah abdicated (September 16). His son ascended the throne as Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi. At the time of the War, Iran had just begun to develop its petroleum indutry. It did not play an important factor in the War. Britain fought the War largely with American oil, although the 8th Army fought the War in the Western Desert largely with Iraqi oil. Iran's importance in the War was largely as a conduit for American Lend Lease shipments to the Soviets. Iran in fact became the major conduit for American Lend Lease aid to the Soviets. Given the fact that the Wehrmacht was largely destroyed on the Eastern Front by the Red Army, these supplies delivered through Iran were very important indeed.
When the British and Soviets intervened in Iran, the Mufti again had to flee. I am not sure a definitive account exists of his movements. Varying accounts indicate that he fled to Turkey or Afghanistan. Both countries were neutral. And the Mufti had contacts in both countries. It is known that he reached Albania (October 24). Albania at the time was occupied by Fascist Italy. He then went to southern Italy and then on to Rome (October 27).
When the British and Soviets intervened in Iran, Husseini escaped first to Italy, finally reaching Berlin. He was enthusiastic received by the "Islamische Zentralinstitut" and the small Islamic community of Germany which with due deference to the NAZIs pronounced him the "FŁhrer of the Arabic world." Husseini was received by Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop. He then met with Adolf Hitler (November 28,1941). Hitler at the time was on the verge of victory in Russia. The Germans establish an administrative office or bureau. It was here that the Muftis war time activies were planned and conducted. He assisted the NAZIs in a variety of ways. 1) He made extensive propaganda broadcasts. 2) He organized espionage and fifth column activities in Muslim populated areas of Europe (the Soviet Union and the Balkans) and the Middle East. 3) He lelped form Muslim Waffen SS and Wehrmacht units in Bosnia-Hercegovina, Kosovo-Metohija, Western Macedonia, North Africa, and NAZI-occupied areas of the Soviet Union. 4) He set up schools and training centers for Muslim imams and mullahs who would accompany the Muslim military units. He was especially active in Bosnia and Kosovo-Albania. He spent much of the War in Berlin making anti-British propaganda for the NAZIs. He also supported NAZI efforts to promote Muslim resistance to the Soviets and British. He helped form Muslim military inits in the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia. Defeats in the East creating a need for manpower. The Wehrmacht had formed Muslim units in the Soviet Union. Himmler had an interest in Islam and decided that the SS should also form Muslim units. The assignment was given to Gottlob Berger, head of the SS Main Office in control of recruiting.
He met with both ReichsfŁhrer SS Heinrich Himmler and Holocaust organizer Adolf Eichmann. Arab supporters of the NAZIs seemed to have blithy assumed that they would be liberated by the Axis and thus achieve independence. It is difficult to see how any minimally educated observer in 1940-41 could have reached that conclusion, especially given Italian conduct in Libya and German conduct in the Occupied East.
The NAZIs had an ally in the Grand Mufti of Jurelselum. He aplauded Hitler's seizure of power in Germany (1933). He was enthusiastic received by the "Islamische Zentralinstitut" and the small Islamic community of Germany which due deference to the NAZIs pronounced him the "FŁhrer of the Arabic world." Husseini's first speech in Berlin denounced the Jews as the "most fierce enemies of the Muslims" and an "ever corruptive element" in the world. Husseini was an honored guest of the NAZI's in Berlin. Husseini is reported to have visited Auschwitz and encouraged the SS staff operating the gas chambers to work harder. Husseini was exploited by Goebbels' propaganda machine and made numerous broadcasts in Arabic to the Middle East promoting the NAZIs and giving virulently anti-Semitic sermons. Another largely ignored question is the fact that the Arabs are also semmites. NAZI racist science claimed that the Jews had genitically carried diseases. One wonders why the Arabs did not carry these diseases. Of course the NAZI racist science was a pseudo science so they could invent an Arab people free of such contamination. Husseini was an honored guest of the NAZI's in Berlin. He was received by Hitler twice. He pressed Hitler on the last group of Jews left in NAZI hands--the Hungarian Jews. He did not want them to be allowed to escape, fearing they would come to Palestine. Adolf Eichman at the time was attempting to negotiate with the British to exchange 5,000 Hungarian children for German POWs. Husseini's point of view prevalied. The SS were dispatched the children to the NAZI death camps in Poland. Husseini is reported to have visited Auschwitz and encouraged the SS staff operating the gas chambers to work harder. Husseini was exploited by Goebbels' propaganda machine and made numerous broadcasts in Arabic to the Middle East promoting the NAZIs and giving virulently anti-Semitic sermons.
After the War he eluded the Allies and was given refuge in Egypt (1945). There he strongly influenced men like Yasser Arafat, Gamel Abdul Nassar, and Anwar Sadat.
The Mufti helped organize irregular groups in Palestine to resist the UN partition plan (1947).
The Mufti's influence appears to have waned after the War bwtween the Arabs and Isrealis (1948-49). Palestinians have generally ignored the Muftis NAZI associations. Some members of the Husseni family were more moderate. Feisal Husseini was, however, a relative moderatev. He had portfolio for Jerusalem in the Palestinian National Authority.
The experienced of the First Isreali-Palestinian War caused King Abdullah to change his mind about a military sollution. The King delivered a different message to the Arabs than Nassar who was determined to destroy Isrrael with military force. King Andullah became convinced that an accomodation needed to be reached with Israel. Nasser's impassioned pleas had more appeal to the Aran public than King Abdullah's quiet voice of compromise. This flexible approach was anathema to Palestinians and many other Arabs. A group of 10 conspirators frustrated by the King's more flexible support for Palestinian nationalist aspirations plotted to assasinate him. A young Palestinian shot the King at the al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem (July 20, 1951). The leader of the group was a cousin of the Grand Mufti. King Abdullah was seceeded by his son Talal. The King's grandson Prince Hussain, who was at his side when he was shot.
We notice European news programing addressing the historical roots of the Palestinian-Isreali conflict which address the role of the Grand Mufti. One such program was aired in Norway by NRK. Incredibly, they failed to mention the NAZI associations of the Grand Mufti. Readers attempting to undedrstand the conflict should be suspivious of any presentation pretending to be objective if they cover up the Grand Mufti's NAZI past. Other presentations try to downplay the Grand Mufti's NAZI associations. We note a 30 minute BBC special report on BBC Radio 4 (week of July 25-31, 2010). Aalid Shooebat reports, "The BBC in their usual bias at the end of the report try to discount for sake of "balance," the current influence of Haj Min Husseini on the current political situation in the conflict as immaterial." He maintains as the BBC refused to admit, "... the reason the Grand MUfti is not so much revered by the Palestiniains today is because he did not succeed in destroying the Jews and Israel."
Davies, Keith. Director, Walid Shoebat Foundation, eMail message, August 3, 2010.
Porch, Douglas. The Path to Victory (Farrar, Straus, and Giroux: New York, 2004), 796p.
Savich, Carl. "Islam Under the Swastika: The Grand Mufti and the Nazi Protectorate of Bosnia-Hercegovina, 1941-1945," Serbiana.
Navigate the Boys' Historical Clothing Web Site:
[Return to Main Palestine World War II page]
[Return to Main World War II country page]
[Return to Main World War II Islam page page]
[Return to World War II: The Arabs and the Axis]
[Introduction] [Biographies] [Chronology] [Climatology] [Clothing] [Disease and Health] [Economics] [Freedom] [Geography] [History] [Human Nature] [Law]
[Nationalism] [Presidents] [Religion] [Royalty] [Science] [Social Class]
[Bibliographies] [Contributions] [FAQs] [Glossaries] [Images] [Links] [Registration] [Tools]
[Children in History Home]