German Royalty: Baden


Figure 1.--This is Prince Berthold of Baden, born about 1906. He wears a rather frilly white tunic suit with kewpie hair style. I think he was the grandson of Grand Duke Frederich II, but am not yet sure.

Baden was a Grand Duchy in the German Empire. It is bownded on the north by Bavaria and Hesse; on the west by the Rhine which separates it from the Palatine and France; on the south by Switzerland; and the east by Wurtenburg. Berthod, a duke of Carinthia, in the 11th Century, built a castle at Zahringen in Breisgau, and a descendent of his second son took the title of Margrave of Baden to which the House of Baden traces his ancestry. The Margrave Charles Frederick cooperated with Napoleon and greatly enlarge the his posesions. This enabled Baden to acceed to the dignity of elector status and Baden to become a Grand Duchy. The Grand Duke Charles in 1811 granted a charter which became the basis for Baden's Government. His uncle Louis succed him and expanded the charter in 1825. Louis died childless and was suceeded by his half brother Leopold in 1830. The Grand Duchy was afterwards racked by conflict between the forces of revolution and reactionary policies. The Army sided with the revolutionary forces in 1848 and Grand Duke Leopold fled, but was later reinstated by the Prussians. Even so the Grand Duke sided with the Austrians in the 1866 Prusso-Austrian War. Baden had to pay an indemnity to Prussia and reorganize its Army on the Prussian model. Baden entered the North-German Confederation in 1867 and joined the prussians in the war with France in 1870. Baden in 1870-71 became a Grandy Duchy in the new Grman Empire. The Grand Duke governed Baden with a elected Diet. The Grand Duchy was generally considered one of the most hapily administered in Europe. The Grand Duke Friederich was Kaiser Wilhelm II's uncle. The disaster of World War I, however, resulted in the fall of House of Baden. The Grand Duke of Baden, a first cousin of Kaiser Wilhelm's father also lost his throne on November 10, 1918.

Baden

Baden was a Grand Duchy in the German Empire. It is bownded on the north by Bavaria and Hesse; on the west by the Rhine which separates it from the Palatine and France; on the south by Switzerland; and the east by Wurtenburg. Baden is perhaps best known for the Black Forrest, named because it ws so densley wooded and thus dark. Baden is also famous for Baden-Baden, a popular spa resort. European royalty were trgular visitors to the spa resort thoughout the 19th and early 20th century. A casino was also popular with German and other European royalty, but closed by Kaisser Wilhelm I in 1872. It is just as difficult to conceive of Baden-Baden without its casino as it is without his baths. Baden-Baden not only has one of the leading casinos in Europe, with one of the richest traditions, but also one of the oldest. The ball still rolls today in the roulette wheels installed in the magnificent rooms which the lessee Edouard Bénazet had designed by Paris craftsmen and which led Marlene Dietrich to proclaim that the casino was the most beautiful in the world. Casinos have operated in Baden Basen since at least 1748. The government of the Grand Duke in Karlsruhe signed a 15-year lease in 1824 with the casino operator Chabert. After Baden joined the other German states in the German Empire, the Kaisser in 1872 ordered all German casinos to close. The Baden-Baden casino did not open until the NZIs seized power in 1933.

History

Berthod, a duke of Carinthia, in the 11th Century, built a castle at Zahringen in Breisgau, and a descendent of his second son took the title of Margrave of Baden to which the House of Baden traces his ancestry. The Margrave Charles Frederick cooperated with Napoleon and as a result, greatly enlarged the his possesions. This enabled Baden to acceed to the dignity of elector status and Baden to become a Grand Duchy.

Grand Dukes

Some basic information is available on the Grand Dukes of Baden.

Karl Friederich (1728-1811 )

Karl Friderich Zähringen Grand Duke of Baden was born in 1728. He married Caroline Hesse-Darmstadt (1723- )

Augustus George (1706-1771)

Augustus George Zähringen of Baden-Baden, Margrave of Baden-Baden was born in 1706. His father was Louis William of Baden-Baden Zähringen, Margrave of Baden-Baden (1655- ). He acceded in 1n 1761. He died in 1771.

Karl Friederich ( -1811)

Napoleon at the turn-of-the 19th century won major military victories and emerged as the dominant force in Europe. Napoleon after his victory at Austerlitz (1805) could largely dictate affairs throuout Germany. Napoleon raised Baden to a grand duchy after the dissolving the Holy Roman Empire (1806). Karl Frederick died (1811). His son had already died and he was suceeded by his grandson, Charles.

Karl/Charles (1811-18)

Karl Charles, Grand Duke of Baden was born in Karlsruhe (1786). Karl's father was Karl Ludwig Hereditary Prince of Baden, the heir to the Margraviate of Baden. Karl's mother was Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt, the daughter of Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. He was related through marriage to the ruling family of Bavaria, Russia and Sweden. His eldest sister Caroline married Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria. Another sister, Louise. married Czar Alexander I of Russia. And another sister, Frederica, married Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden. Karl while still a teenager at age 15 years went on a journey with his father to visit the courts of his sisters in in St. Petersburg and Stockholm. He was returning with his father (still the Baden crown prince) , when his father fell from his coach (1801). Charles was a witness to this accident from which he died. Napoleon was anxious to marry the Bonaparte family into Europen royalty to help legitimize his family dynasty. Karl as a result was forced to marry, Stéphanie de Beauharnais, Napoleon's adopted daughter (1806). The wedding took place in Paris. He and his family protested. He had hoped to marry a cousin, Princess Augusta of Bavaria. Emperor Napoleon could have replaced him nd his family, so Karl finally married Stéphanie. The circumstances meant that the couple took 5 years to produce a child. Karl also had to lead Baden forces as a French ally. The Baden forces served under under Marshal Lefbvre in the seige of Danzig (1807). Karl returned to Baden to be with his ageing grandfather, the Grandduke (1808). Karl became coregent. Karl at the . Charles was 25 years old when he succeeded his grandfather (1811). Karl and Stéphanie de Beauharnais had five children. One of the daughters, Josephine (1813–1900) married Karl Anton of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1811–1885) (1834). His daughter Marie Luise married into the Belgian royal family. Grand Duke Charles did not have any surviving male children, , he was thus succeeded by his uncle Louis/Ludwig I. It was for some time speculated that a foundling, Kaspar Hauser, was actually his son, but because of his mother's common ancestry was not acceotable as the hereditary prince. This has now been proven to be false.

Louis/Ludwig I (1763-1818)

Karl's uncle Louis succeded him and expanded the charter (1825). Louis died childless and was suceeded by his half brother Leopold in 1830.

Karl-Ludwig (1755- )

Karl-Ludwig was born in 1786. He acceded in 1811. His father was Karl Ludwig Zähringen of Padua, Prince of Padua & Baden (1755- ). His mother was Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt (1754- ). He married Stephanie, Vicomtesse de Beauharnais (1806- ). They had five children: Louise Amelia Stephanie (1811- ), son (1812- ), Josephine (1813- ), Alexander (1816- ), and Marie (1817- ). He died in 1819.

Leopold I (1790- )

Leopold I Zähringen, Grand Duke of Baden was born in 1790. His father was Karl Friedrich (1728- ), Grand Duke of Baden. His mother was Louise von Geyersberg (1768- ). He married Sophie Wilhemina von Holstein-Gottorp in 1819. They had eight children: Alexandrine (1820- ), Ludwig (1822- ), Grand Duke Louis II (1824- ), Grand Duke Frederick I (1826- ), Wilhelm (1829- ), Karl (1832- ), Marie (1834- ), and Cecily (Olga) (1839- ). Leopold acceded as Grand Duke in 1830. The Grand Duchy was afterwards racked by conflict between the forces of revolution and reactionary policies. The Army sided with the revolutionary forces in 1848 and Grand Duke Leopold fled, but was later reinstated by the Prussians. He died in 1850.

Louis II (1824-58)

Louis II was born in 1824. His father was Leopold I Zähringen (1790), Grand Duke of His mother was Sophie Wilhemina von Holstein-Gottorp (1801- ). I have no imformation on children Grand Duke Louis. He was deposed in 1856. He died 2 years later.

Frederick I (1826-1907)

Frederick I Zähringen of Baden, Grand Duke of Baden was born in 1826. His father was Leopold I Grand Duke of Baden (1790- ). His mother was Sophie Wilhemina (1801). He married Sophie Wilhemina von Holstein-Gottorp (1801- ). The eldest son was Frederick II (1857- ) Grand Duke of Baden. Their daughter was Victoria of Baden (1862- ). She married the Swedish Crown Prince and became Queen of Sweden. She played a major role in developing interest in Swedish folk costumes as a kind of national dress. The youngest child was Ludwig (1865- ). The Grand Duke sided with the Austrians in the 1866 Prusso-Austrian War. Baden had to pay an indemnity to Prussia and reorganize its Army on the Prussian model. Baden entered the North-German Confederation in 1867 and joined the Prussians in the war with France in 1870. Baden in 1870-71 became a Grandy Duchy in the new Grman Empire. The Grand Duke governed Baden with a elected Diet. The Grand Duchy was generally considered one of the most hapily administered in Europe.

Friederich II (1857-1928)

Grand Duke Friederich was Kaiser Wilhelm II's uncle. His father was was Frederick I (1826- ). His mother was Louise Hohenzollern (1838- ) He married Hilda Nassau in 1885. I jave no information on their children. Kaisser Wilhelm turned to Prince Max of Bavaria as his last primeminister. The Third Supreme Command (Ludendorff and Hindenburg) and the Kaiser turned to Prince Max in desperation as the Western Front began to collapse under the pressure of the Allied 100 Day Offensive. Prince Max was a moderate in the Reichstag who had opposded the renewl of unconditional sunbmarine warfare. It was thought that he could best arrange termns with President Wilson. Prince Max forced Ludendorff out. He played a rfole in arranging the Armistice ending the War, although he was replaced as chancelor just before it was signed. He had hoped to preserve the monarchy, but eventually had to advise the Kaiser to resign. The disaster of World War I resulted in the fall of House of Baden. The Grand Duke, a first cousin of Kaiser Wilhelm's father, lost his throne on November 10, 1918 in the aftermath of World War I.







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Created: June 6, 1998
Last updated: 12:42 AM 1/26/2012