English artists perhaps do not have the same stature as some of their cross channel rivals--the French. This is perhaps the French impressionists are today so imprtant a part of our artistic mind set. Certainly English painting was eclipsed by the explosion of impresionistic art in France during the 19th century. There is one areas, however, in which the English were unrivaled and that is portriture in the 18th and early 19th century. The work of Gainborough, Lawrence, Reynolds, and others provide us with some of the most magnificent portraits ever executed. Even landscapeist master Constable contrubuted at least one marvelous portrait. The English are also noted for their watercolors, but these tended to focus less on portriture. These masterful portraits of course provide an invaluable record of fashion trends.
Helen Allingham (nee
Paterson) was born near Burton on Trent, the family settling in Birmingham after the death of her father in 1862. She studied at the Birmingham School of Design. She is recognized as an important English watercolor painter in the late 19th and early 20th Centuries. Most of her work is exteriors, but a few are of her children, often in formal clothes. This provides a rare
insight into play clothes in the late 19th Century as most of the available portraits and photographs show the children in their dress party clothes.
We have very little information about William Allsworth born (1811). His parents were Ralph and Mary. He exhibited 10 paintings at the Royal Academy -- London) (1836-56). All but one was a portrait. He was not a member of the Academy. His wife was Georgiana who surbived him. They lived at in Camden Town / St Pancras in 1861, which isn’t far from Bethnal Green. He also exhibited two portraits at the British Institute (1854 and 1856). His most notable work is 'The Emigrants’ (1844). This is the work that we fond interesting because it depicts a Scottish emigrant family with seven children. The individuals are painted in a rather stiff manner, giving the scene a rather a ‘naďve’ look. His portrairs seem more professionally done. But the clothing is pinted in detail. The only problem is that rather than a scene painted in Scotland, it appears to have been painted in London. The family was suposedly the wealthy Mackay family gathered on the coast near their Scottish Highland home - Drumdruin in Sutherlandshire. They are surrounded by luggage, and are preparing to New Zealand. The ship they have chartered to take them the Slains Castle cn be seen in the background. The father and hisband is James Mackay Senior, the brother of the local laird. He stands at the back. His wife, Anne is seated near him with the baby. Ttheir six children: James Junior, Robert, Anne, Janet, Isabella, and Erica. Also in the group are two nephews - Alexander Tertius Mackay and James Tertius Mackay. The only problem is that they were not the Macays. Their actual name is unknown. We think they must have been Scottish as when they arrived in New Zealnd, unless they were Scottish, their accent would have given them away. They apparently brought the portrait wih them to Zealan to help establish their elaborate family story.
The English painter Charles William Bartlett (1860-1940) did historical paintings. We are not sure to what extent he sought to research the subjects that he painted. He lived for a time in Paris. We notice one work, 'Captives in Rome' (1888). The painting depicts a hardened Roman soldier tenderly offering some fruit to captive children, separated from their parents, probably waiting to be sold as slaves.
Sir William Beechey was the foremost portraitist in Britain in the late 18th
and early 19th century. He started his career painting portraits of the landed gentry around Norfolk. He was appointed as the court painter to Quenn Charlotte. He painited the cream of Regency society, including Lord Nelson. His charming portaits of families provide wonderful glimses into Regency society, including children's clothes.
We have been able to find little information on English artist William Beetham. This is a wonderful painting of a wealthy family on their Dorset estate by William Beetham. It waas a massive work, measuring 10 by 14 feet. Beetham made his name as a society portraitist. He exhibited at the Royal Academy (1834-53). Beetham had a socieety clientelle. He exhibited a fine portrait of the former Prime Minister, Frederick Robinson, Viscount Goderich (1843). Reverend Nathaniel Bond in Dorset wanted his family to be depicted by a respected artist if not master artist and he could afford it. He thus chose Beetham. A few years after painting the Bond family, Beetham emigrated to New Zealand (1855). He thus became one of the most accomplished artists in New Zealand in a relatively early stage of its colonial history. He was elected the first President of the Fine Arts Association in Wellington (1882).
William Bromely was actived during 1835-88. Bromley exhibited extensively in London at the Royal Society of British Artists, the British Institute and the Royal Academy. Even so, little is known about Bromley, except that he was the grandson of the the engraver William Bromley. He is best know for his hostorical and literary paintings. He also painted some wonderful vignittes of English life in the mid-19th century. He began painting just as photography was establishing itself. Even so the technology involved was still limited to static scenes ant fascinating images like "Ready to Fight".
Coleman was born in Birminghamduring 17??. He exhibited at the Royal Academy (1813-48). He contributed to the Royal Birmingham Society of Arts from 1827. He was elected a member of the RBSA in 1826. Coleman is best known for his portraits. We note one portait of a brother and sister, "Portrait of Children with Their Pets" painted late in his career, 1844. The portrait is notable for the boy's very modern-looking clothing. Onterestingly the girl's clothing looks more contemporary.
Dorothy Colles was an artist in oil, pastel and pencil, who was noted for her portraits mainly of children. She was born in Cairo, Egypt, and studied at the Westminster School of Art before World War II with John Farleigh, Bernard Meninsky and Mark Gertler. She not only did children's portraits, but wrote a book about painting children
We note a figurative painting by E. Collier done in 1939. It is in a post expressionist or post modernist style of a boy playing with g with a mah-jong set, a popular game of the time. The tiles are scattered on the floor at his feet. There is a red lacquered workbox at his side. The boy is sitting on the floor wearing a white shirt and green shorts, having blonde hair and looking towards the artist. The painting has been executed with a number of techniques. For the background, the paint has been applied in a textured, almost cubist fashion, in horizontal strokes and then in stroked parallel with the textures of the carpet. We know nothing about the artist at this time.
John Constable is perhaps the most acclaimed English landscape artist. He expalined his goal, "to increase the interest for and study of the Rural Scenery of England with all its endearing associations, its amenities, and even in its most simple locations; abounding as it does in grandeur, and every description of Pastoral Beauty." He also, however, did a number of brilliant portraits. A few of these included children, providing some insights into how wealthy English children dressed in the early 19th century.
We have not yet been able to acquire much information on English artist James Warren Childe. He appears to have been primarily a portratist. A painting by Childe shows child prodigy Sir William Sterndale Bennett in 1832 at age 16 in the uniform of the Royal College of Music, London.
Francis was born in London (1726) and grew up in the city. He was the oldest son of apothecary Robert Cotes and his second wife Elizabeth Lynn. He began training as a portraitist at abot 15 years of age (1741). He was accpted into the studio of George Knapton who worked in both pastels and oil and was strongly influnced by Rosabla. Cotes was a pioneer in English pastel painting. He gained some understanding of chemistry from his fathers's apothecary shop and helped make quality pastel crayons. He begn working as a portraitst in his father's house. He soon gained early recognition as a pastel portratist. His first clained portrait was of the beautiful Gunning sisters (1751). There was even a love portrait about the portrait, 'Address to Celia's picture'. After mid-century he was widely recognizd as England's most talented pastel pportratist (1760s). As such he painted many important figures of the era, both men and women. Among his commissions were several portraits of the children from wealthy families. He painted several child cricket images demonstrating the popularity of the sport, incluing a genre work. As an important member of the English art establishment, he helped found the Society of Artists, becoming its director (1765). He was a founding member of the Royal Academy. He was patronized by the Royal Family. Cotes gradually shifted more toward oils, it is believed primarily because a portrait could be completed in less time making it more profitable. Art experts credit Cotesv with innivative innovative compositions, dramatic use of intense color, masterful and bold line, and what is described as 'informal' naturalism. He was a prolific artist and left a substantial body of work, despite an early death at age 44 years (1770).
Fredrick George Cotman came from an artistic family. He was the son of Henry Cotman and a nephew of the notable painter, John Sell Cotman (1782-1842). The younger Cotman persued a successful career in the late-19th century. He began studying at the Royal Academy Schools (1868). Soon afterwards he was exhibiting both oils and watercolors. His first exhibition was (1871). His 'The Death of Eucles' was particularly well received, winning the gold medal (1873). Cotman became especially known for his lucrative portraits of London society and formaly structured narrative scenes. Of special historical importance are oils and watercolors of his native East Anglia. They were done with an impresionistic influence. These include many of his most important works. A good example is The Dame School painted in 1887. I'm not sure if the Dame school existed at the time or was painted from memory. The clothing looks rather like the 1880s morecthan an earlier period.
Eyre Crowe was an English artist. We mention him under American artistrs because he painted important American scenes, including images of ante-bellum slavery. We do not know much about him. He primarily painted historical art and genre scenes. He chose his subjects for their social importance. He style was realism. A good example is an industrial revolution image, 'Lancashire mill girls in 1874 relaxing at lunchtime' (figure 1). An important American work is 'Slaves waiting for sale' Richmond, Virginia, 1861. What we see is a somewhat sanitized view of slavery without the whips, blood hounds, and chains commonly see in Abolitioniist images. Most notably the mothers are depicted with their children. This is an important work because so few American artists produced works on slvery. The date is when he painted it, not when he observed the scene. Eyre was born in London, but was raised in France. His father was journalist Eyre Evans Crowe which probably explain his realist and journalist approach to art. His brother was journalist, diplomat and art historian Joseph Archer Crowe.
Herbert James Draper is a not fully tecognized English Classicist artist. Herbert was born in London (1863). He was educated at the St. John's Wood Art School and the Royal Academy Schools (1884- ). He won the Royal Academy Travelling Scholarship (1889) and studied at the Academie Julian in Paris and in Rome. By that time he had begun to exhibit at the Royal Academy. He then exhibited his work regularly. Draper is known for his academic figure drawing with a kind of post-Impressionist color range along with pointillist pining technique, We notice a number of imaginative scenes including both classical images as well as the purely imaginiative. His 'Lament for Icarus' (1898) is a good example of his classical work. We also notice portraits of chidren, both boys and girls. Some of the chikdren are identified and aree cllearly commissions from wealthy families. Some are not. We noticve onecboy in an early 19th century skeleton suit. We are not sure if this is an imaginative work or a modern boy dressed in a costume. Draper achieved some success at the turn of the century, but the growing popularity of modern art eclispsed his career.
Mark Fisher is listed as a British artist, although he was born in Boston and studied there at the Lowell Institute. He went to Paris in 1872 and studied under Gleyre and Corot. He came to England in 1872 and became a member of such societies as N.E.A.... A.R.A.....R.A.....R.I....and R.O.I. He exhibited at many well know galleries in England and has had several paintings bought by the Royal Academy under the 'Chantrey Bequest' which now hang in the Tate Gallery in London. Although primarily a landscape artist he was also known for his portrait.
Joseph Otto Flatter , was born in Vienna in 1894, he was a student at the Vienna Academy of Fine Art. In 1934 he married the concert pianist Hilda Lorwa and settled with her in London. His career was interrupted by the outbreak of World War II and he was in fact, briefly, and quite incorrectly, interned as an "enemy alien". He was soon released and returned to London, when it was realized that he had long standing anti-Nazi convictions. Shortly thereafter, Flatter began producing propaganda material for the British and Allied Governments. At the end of the war, he was invited to attended the Nuremberg Trials as an official British War Artist, sketching the accused and later painting a scene of the trial. Some fvhis portrits show bogs clothing during the first half og the 20th century.
William Powell Frith was the son of domestic servants. he became renowned for his large-scale portraits of modern life subjects such as the railroad station. His renown was so great that he was awarded a commission to paint the Prince of Wales' group wedding portrait. He had some difficulty with the future Edward VII's German nephew Wilhelm. His work commaned high prices in the 1870s.
Elizabeth Forbes was known for her fishing scenes, child figures and populated landscapes near Newlyn, Cornwall. She aklso made prints. She was born in Canada (1859). She was raised in England. She attended the South Kensington School of Art in London. Shecestablished herself in London. She traveled to New York (1877).
She enrolled at the Art Students League. Among the teachers was William Merritt Chase She also worked with him at Zandvoort, near Haarlem, Holland (summer 1884). The exhibited her work at the Royal Academy of London and the Royal Society of Painters/Etchers (1885). She gained entry as an elected an associate member of the Royal Watercolor Society. One fascinating portrait is 'School is out' at Newlyn (1889).
Marjorie Fuller (née Mostyn) was a 20th century English artist born Bushey. Daughter of Tom Mostyn, the painter. She tudied at St John's Wood Art School and Royal Academy Schools. Awarded the British Institute Scolarship and silver and bronze medals in 1915. Painter of portraits and still-life. Ran St Ives School of Painting with her husband.
Thomas Gainsborough is one of the most renowned portrait painter. He developed the subject-matter of small portrait groups, set in a realistic landscape. Two his most famous portraits are The Blue Boy (1770) and Pink Boy (17??). The boys, one a relative of Gainsbourough, were painted in elaborate satin and lace costumes of the previous century. His early works show the influence of French engraving and of Dutch landscape painting; at Bath his change of portrait style owed much to a close study of van Dyck (his admiration is most clear in The Blue Boy. By the 1780s Gainsborough and his rivals, Joshua Reynolds and Allan Ramsay, were considered to be the best portrait painters in England. All three painted George III but it was claimed that the royal family preferred Gainsborough's portraits.
Frederick Goodall was an English aetist, but has to be included as one of tghe earliest painter of Egyptian scenbes since the Arab conquest (7th century AD). Frederick was born in London, England (1822). His father was steel line engraver Edward Goodall (1795-1870). It is thus no accident that his sons oursued artistic careers. Frederick was educated at the at the Wellington Road Academy. Goodall began paintibg in England and his conventional career and subject matter was recognized by he Royal Academy. He apparently harbored an interest in Egypt. At the time Egypotology was a popular infatuation. He visited (1858) and again after the construction of the Sue Canal. These were not conventional European tours. He traveled and camped with with Bedouinss. Eyptian themes thus became Goodall became best known for painting. He painted both contemporary and historical scenes, including Biblical scenes. The British and European public in the era before photographic magazines were in great demand and the public was particularly interwsted in Egypt. Here the lure of history as well as Chrutian imagery (Biblical scenes) made Goodall's work very popular and he made areat deal of money. The building of the Suez Canal only increased interest in his work. His contemporary work is some historical interst because his travels allowed him to paint with some accuracy nd there were no Egyptian artists because of Islamic prohibitions on depicting people. To achieve acuaracy, Goodall went to the length of bringing back sheep and goats which he could use as models. His travels even lent a degree of accuracy to his historical work. Egyot like most of the Arab world remained kargely unchanged for centuries. Thus street scenes and life style scecene in the 19th century were not greatly different from a millenium earlier or even further back.
We note a charming pastel by G.P. Green, an English artist. It pictures a little boy and his younger sister. There is no clothing depicted, but the children's short hair styles hair styles are shown. The portrait was made in 1851.
We note a number of highly idealized, rather emotionl paintings by Thomas P. Hall. The British might describe him dismissively as a "chocolate box" painter. He did several memoral naintings involving children such as the "The Altercation", "The Empty Cradle", "The New Arrival", and "The Picnic". Most are relentlessly happy scenes (except "The Empty Cradle"), perhaps explaining his continuing popularity. They are beautifully painted and provide very detailed depictions of the clothing children wear, especially the paintings done in contemprary times. Unfortunately we have been unavle to find any biographical information about Hall.
Harold Harvey (1874–1941) was a one of the Newlyn School artists. Newlyn was a fishing port near Penzance in Corwall where an artist colony developed. They were atracted by the light, scencic Conixh vistas, and colorful village life and villagers. Harvey was from Penzance. Harold's parents were Mary Bellringer Harvey and Francis McFarland Harvey. His father was a bank clerk. He was born in Penzance (1874). Harold was home schooled. He studied art at the Academie Julian in Paris under Norman Garstin (1894-96). He then studied at both the Académie Delécluse and the Academie Colarossi (1896). Harvey returned from France and began working with Norman Garstin in Penzance. He worked on various themes, incluing Ctowall landscapes and life settings as well as religious themes and interiors. He paintd in both oil and watercolor. Harvey married Gertrude Bodinnar (1911). Gertrude had posed for Harvey. It is at that time that she discovered that she had hidden artistic talent and became an artist in her own right, working with rextiles as wll as painting. They moved to Newlyn to join the developing art colony. He painted a wide range of Cirnish scens and people including children.
Thomas Hazlehurst was a notable English miniature painter. He was born in Liverpool (about 1740). We know very little bout his childhood. He was a pupil of famed English portratist Joshua Reynolds. Hazelhursr exhibited at the Society for Promoting Painting and Design in Liverpool for most of his active working life (1760-1818). He also exhibited at the Liverpool Academy for a few years late in his career (1810-12). His work is decribed as 'highly finished'. This means I think that his paintings were so relaistic that it might be taken for a photograph. Quite an accomplishment for a minaturist. Minatures wre in great demand in the era before photography. Another art expert describes Hazelhurst's work as of 'great excellence". We notice some beautiful images. As a result of his skill and reputation his work was in great demand. We notice images of various aristocrats and other affluent individuals and their children. Severl important British museums hold his work. He is said to have made more than Ł20,000 from his paintings, a substantial sum in the 18th century. He reportedly made some poor investments, presumably late in life, and died in poverty.
William Hoare was from Bsth. He was active in the 1730s. Bath at the time was a fashionable site for well-to-do, fashionable Britons. We do not know a great deal about Hoare. He was from a wealthy family in East Anglia. He studied in London and Italy. On retuning from Italy he failed to make a career, he settled in Bath, where there were few Artists, but a big demand from the well to do after Bath became fashionable. He painted the famous; George Fredrick Handel, William Walpole and William Pitt. The arrival of Thomas Gainsborough didn't diminish his custom. He apparently painted mostly portraits. We note a portrait of Trower children, Elizabeth and Thomas Trower with a landscape background. It was apparently painted sometine in the 1730s before the portrait by Delaroche.. We have no idea who the Trower Children were . They look to be about 4-6 years old. Both chidren wear dresses, but different styles. The boy's brown dress has a hint of suit styling while the girl wears a standard white dress. Both wear blue sashes, but ine differently. We are not sure, however, to what extent the difference reflects gender conventions as opposed to non-consequential variation.
James Holmes is best known for his portraits of Byron in 1815 and a splendid one of George IV, completed in 1828. Holmes was also the founder and first President of the Society of British Artists. We note a splendid water color on ivory that was exhibited in the Royal Academy in 1840. We do no know the identity of the boy.
William Hogarth is one of the most respected British Artists. He was both an engraver and painter. He aprenticed as a silversmith. After finishing his aprenticeship he began working as an engraver and later turned to painting. His images are some of the most vivid images painted of 18th century England, provide wonderful glimpses of the family life,
especially affluent families, as well as contemporary manners and custims. His detiled images provide extremely accurate depictions of fashions and clothing. Hogarth is also famous for is marvelous satiries on popular life.
John Hoppner was a majort English portratist. His family immigrated from Germany. His mother was a royal attendant in the court of King George II. The Hannovers were a German dynasty. King George I spoke German an German was still very important in Gerorge II's counrt. Thus there were positions aavailable to Germans. John was born in London (1758). He was awarded a position as a chorister in the Chapel Royal, St James's Palace. He then received allowance from King George III to study at the Royal Academy Schools (1775). He began exhibiting at the Royal Academy (1780) and won a gold medal for historical painting. His penchant was for landscapes, but the need to make a living meant he had to do portraits.
The royal favors he received led to rumors that he was the king's illegitimate son, rumors that Hoppner rather encouraged because it provided some orestige to his studio. The Prince of wales (Prince Reagent later King George IV) appointed portrait painter at his court. After the death of Reynolds, who he emulated, he and Lawrence were seen as England's leading portraitists. He painted quite a few portaits of families and children, among the much larger portraits of notables. The boys he painted mostly were portrayed wearing skeleton suits.
We do not yet know a great deal about Charles Hunt. He has lkeft some fascinating Victorian images. One especially interesting image is "The Wayside Tinker" (1859). The scene seems a bit strained as I wonder how likely it would be for such emacuately dressed Victorian children to encounter tinkers on country strolls. Still it is a wonderful depiction of the contrast between dress of the poor and wealthy in Victorian England. The boy is particularly interesting. He has ringlets curls and wears a velet and lace outfit with patalettes more than two decades before the Little Lord Fauntleroy craze of the 1880s.
William Holman Hunt was an English pre-Raphaelite painter. Hunt worked for several years as a clerk in a London office whivh he hated. He wanted to paint and finally gained admission to the Royal Academy Schools (1844). While studying there he met John Everett Millais and Dante Gabriel Rossetti. They were dissatisfied with the governing academic artistic standards. This was the inspiration for the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (1848). The Pre-Raphaelites were concerned with enfusing their works with moral content and believed in a relism based on nature study and historical accuracy. Hunt many years later wrote about this in Pre-Raphaelitism and the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (1905). Hunt was especially interested in painted Biblical and non-Biblical Middle Eastern scenes. He traveled to the Near East to leann about archaeology and regional landscape. His first trip was an extended one during which he sketched numerous water colors (1854-56). He exhibited these water colors, but also used to paint more elaborate oil works based to varying degrees on his water colors. He was involved with the Old Water-Colour Society for many years. We note some some societ portraits.
We have very limited information on this painter. We know only that he was a painter, art dealer and banker in Rome. One portait shows a boy plying a chello or similar instrumnt dressed in a tightly laced dress. We suspect that he is English.
Cornelius Johnson was an imprtamt portaits in the mid-17th century. The Dutch form of his name was Cornelis Janssens van Ceulen, but there are other variants as ge constantly changed his signature. He was born in London of Dutch/Flemish parontage. They were part of the Dutch community consisting of many refugees from the Dutch War of Inependcence which England supported. He may have been trained in the Netherlands. His work was certainly influenced by Dutch art. His earliest works perhaps with a few exceptions were English portraits. He usually painted oval busts. He was highly regarded, but not among the graeat masters like Van Dyke with whom he was associated. Johnson was noted for his detailed depictions of clothing. He worked in England painting portraits of the aristocracy with even a few royal commissions. He mostly paonted the 'emerging' aristocrats, not the top tier of the arustocracy. He painted the Capel family (c1641). He left England after the outbreak of the Civil War, presumably because his clients were mosly aristicrats (1643). From that time his subjects were Dutch, except for portrait of refugee English royalty and aristocrats. .
Edwin Landseer was an English artist notable for his paintings of animals. Landseer was born in London. His father was John Landseer ARA. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1815. He was only 13 years old, one of the youngest artists ever to exhibit at the Royal Academy. He was elected ARA in 1826 and RA in 1831. He was knighted in 1850 and was awarded a
gold medal at the Paris Exhibition of 1855. Landseer was elected President of the Royal Academy in 1866, but declined the honor. While known for his animal portrait, we note a charming portrait of a brother and sister.
Famed portrait painter Sir Thomas Lawrence was born in Bristol. He entered the Royal Academy as a student in 1787 and exhibited a number of paintings in his first year. He won recognition for his portrait of Miss Farren, an actress. He beccame the fashionable prtrait painter of his day, and on the death of Sir. Joshua Reynolds in 1792, he was made principal painter to King George III, who knighted him in 1815. Lawrence is especially noted for his children's portraits for which he was unsurpassed in his day. These portraits are a rich source of information on fashionable children's wear of the day. His portrait of The Calmady Children is generally regarded as his masterpiece of this genre. Larence, Gainsborough, and Reynolds represent the apex of distinctive English portrait painters.
Philip Alexius de László was born in Budapest (1869). His work, however, provides few insights into his native Hungary. He should not be confussed with László Moholy-Nagy, a moderist artist whose work also provided no insights into Hungary. Philip de László was a portratist who mostly painted wealthy royal and aristocratic personages. László was born into a humble Jewish family as Fülöp Laub. His parents were Adolf and Johanna Laub, a tailor and seamstress. Fülöp and his younger brother Marczi changed their surname to László which desguised their Jewish origins (1891). He was apprenticed at an early age to a photographer as his parents could not afford further studies beyond primary school. He wanted to study art and as a result of his talent entered the National Academy of Art. He moved to England and remained based in London for the rest of his life (1907). He married Lucy Guinness of Stillorgan, County Dublin, and became a British subject (1914). Even so, as he was born in Hungary, he was interned as an eneny alien during World War I. His work has no noticeable national orientation as travelling throughout Europe to complete his many commissions. Being bsed in Londion, many of his portraits are British. He was extrodinarily prolific artist--over 4,000 works if you count the drawings. They amount to an extrodinary record of the rich and famous. There are several portraits of children, most are of his five sons. He seems to have used them as a diversioin and to experiment with different styles. The porttrait here is of Stephen, his second son painted at the breakfast table in 1912. There are also several portraits of children from wealthy families done as commissions. And there is a portrait of who László called a 'Nubian servant boy', but was not really a Nubian. We are not sure if he actually visited Egypt or the boy was employed in Britain.
Victoria Pre-Raphaelite painter. She did some charming portraits of children and families.
English portrait and historical painter born in Southhampton. He exhibited at the Royal Acadeny when he was only 17 years old. His Pizarro Seizing the Inca of Peru is considered on of the best historical works shown. He became associated with the Pre-Raphaelites, including Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Holman Hunt. His first Pre-Raphaelite painting was a scene from the Isabela of Keats, recalled the manner of the early Flemish and Italian masters. He mairred Euphenmia Gray in 1855. He was elected an associate of the Royal Academy in 1856. Other major works
include Chill October (1871), The Northwest Passage (1873), and Effie Deams (1877). His work includes several portraits of children, providing fascinating glimpses of the clothes wor by wealthy children during the second half of the 19th Century. Millais was created a baronet by Queen Victoria in 1885 and elected president of the Royal Academy in 1896. There's a new exhibition of Millais portraits in London during 1999. One critic in reviewing the exhibit bemoaned how the painter abandoned the pre-Raphaelites to paint society portraits including "sickly sweet portraits of children."
J.T. Mitchell was a well-known British-American miniaturist who exhibited in London between 1798 and 1830 and was also active in the United States. We note some portraits of children. We do not have confirmed portraits by him. We do note a minature that one dealer attributes to Mitchell, "Portrait of a Boy" (1801). The boy is unidentified, but we believe that he is English.
Felix Stone Moscheles was born in London (1833). We do not know a great deal about him. He was a painter, early peace activist, and advocate of wold be international language--Esperanto. He was born into an artistic family appareb5tly of Jewish ancestry. His father was a respected pianist and music teacher Ignaz Moscheles. His wife was fellow painter Margaret (Greta) Moscheles. They were very close. Friend ferred to them as the 'Grelixes'. His godfather, after whom he was named, was none other than famed German composer Felix Mendelssohn. Moscheles exhibited in Paris, Antwer, and London. We have not found many Moschels paintings. The ones wehave found seem to be mostly portraits with some genre and artistic history works. He was quite a competebt artist and was well knownbfor his work as a eace activist andefforts to develop international dispute resolution protocols at the Hague. I do not know of an artist that was so involved in political efforts at such a high level. It must have affected his artistic output. We only know of two two works depiting children. They inclusde a medieval falconer and Eliza Crawshay and her son.
William Mulready was born in Ennis, County Clare, Ireland (1786). When William was about 6-years old, his family brought him to England (1792). The rest of his life and his artuistic career is associated with England. Tghe family settled in London wher he began school. We are not sure about his education and early artistic traioning. He clearly demonstrated a gift at an early age. He was accepted at Royal Academy when he was only 14 years of age. He mairred very young to Elizabeth Varley before his artistic careet was established (1802). Mulready He first focused on landscapes, but gradualy shited to genre painting. Genre scenes dominated his works (by 1808). He liked painting everyday scenes from rural life. Children were often included, but were rarely the focus of the scenes. He was also a noted book illustrator. He illustrated the first edition of Charles and Mary Lamb's Tales from Shakespeare (1807). He also illustrated many well known books such as the Vicar of Wakefiekld which were like genre paintings. His first important painting was 'Returning from the Ale House'. He became a popular Victorian artist. He creating what is now called Mulready stationery letter sheets, which the Post Office thought would be more popular than postage stamps.
Joseph Nash was a respected n English watercolor painter and lithographer. He was especially known for his paintings of historical buildings. His principal work was his 4-volume masterpiece, Mansions of England in the Olden Time published 1839–49. Shortly afterwards he did a series on the Great Exhibition (1851). In addition to the exhibitions, the depiction of the public visitors is also interesting.
Eustace was born at Boscombe (1886). He is associated with rge Channel coast, esoecially Dorset a little to he westt. The studied art at the school on Drummond Road in Bournemouth, studying under A Lister Lobley. He achieved success as a popular commercial artist. He produced a weekly cartoon for the Bournemouth Graphic, usually charactures of local figures (1920s-30s). He did a great deakl iof work for Bournemouth and Poole's publicity deparnent. And he did a lot of private commissions. He formed a close friendship with Leslie Ward. Both were founder members of the Bournemouth Art Club. Nash was a commercial artist by day, but then painted and drew in his free time. Nash did nunmerous paintings of local scenes. We see the Dorset countryside, Poole Quay, seafront cenesbus station, and much more. Nash and Ward exhibited at the Royal Academy. Nash exhibited his paintings at many other venues. Eustace married Phyllis Kemp (1927). Nash and Ward left awonderful visual legacy depicting scenes all over Dorset opulated with local people including children.
John was born at Mithian, near St Agnes, Cornwall (1761). He was a child prodigy, was discovered by the political satirist John Wolcot (Peter Pindar). Walcot launched Opie's career in London as an untutored genius (1780s). Walcot called him the ‘The Cornish Wonder’. It is remarable the quality of his work without any professional training. Opie paintied strongly modelled portraits and rustic albeit fancy pictures. His work is notable for Rembrandtesque lighting. Almost all of his worls are bust portraits, but we notice one familt portrait, the Brodie famuky about 1805. His style dramatic lighting was seen as bold and new, reflecting his working-class origins. He painted severa boys including sme genre work.
Robert Peake the Elder was at the turn of the 17th century one of the most notable English painters. He painted the age Queen Elizabeth as well as several portaits of James I's family, including the Prince of Wales Henry Fredeick. Robert Peake who was born in Lincolnshire (about 1551). As a boy he was aprenticed to a goldsmith in Cheapside. He develped his skills and became accepted as a Freeman of the Goldsmith’s Company. He worked for the Offices of the Revels (1576). He was one of six "Paynters" that worked on court festivities. He was emoloyed by the court to do decorative work for several years. Gradually his work became well enough established that he opened a portrait studio. He is mentioned in Francis Mere’s Palladis Tamia (1598) and was one of the leading English portraitists. It is at this time that he received commissions to paint Queen Elizabeth, including a procession portrait (1600). He was careful to depict her as a young woman. James I ascened to the throne (1603). James was an avid huntstman, but rather scholarly and an avid theolgian. He tended to defer to his wife, Anne of Denmark on artistic matter. Peake received a commission to paint portraits of the two elder Royal children, Prince Henry and Princess Elizabeth.
Laslett John Pott was born in Newark, Nottinghamshire (1837). He was raised there. We have been unable to find any biographical information. He was a Victorian artist who specialized in emotive historical subjects from 16th-18th century English literary and historical scenes. He also painted Napoleonic era scenes which was closer in time and fresh in English minds. Some of his most famous are' Mary Queen of Scots on Her Way to Her Execution' and 'Charles I After His Trial'. These images are useful historical depictions, but did not often feature children which we like to use to illustrate how children were involved in hitorical events. Pott also depicted some Shakesperian scenes. Here one of the best known is 'Prince Arthur and Hubert' (1873-76). We get the impression that he is not one of the more respected English artists. Many major collecgions do not include one of his works. we rather like his work because his paintings often beautifully tell a compeling story.
Joshua Reynolds, the son of a clergyman, was born near Plymouth in 1723. He was sent to London to study art in 1740. He was apprenticed to Thomas Hudson but William
Hogarth and Allan Ramsay had the most influence of his style. After a period in Rome (1749-52), Reynolds returned to England where he established himself as one of country's leading portrait painters. Leading figures painted by Reynolds inclu ded Josiah Wedgwood, Warren Hastings, Sir Joseph Banks and David Garrick. When the Royal Academy was established in 1768, Reynolds was elected its first president. The following year he was knighted. One of the masters of the age with whiuch he competed was Sir Thomas Gainsbourgh. Like Gainbourouh, he painted one of the famed colored boys--in Reynolds case the "Brown Boy". In 1784 Reynolds was appointed as painter to George III. However, 5 years later his sight began to deteriorate and he was forced to give up painting.
George Richmond was an eminent Victorian artist, drawing many of the greats of the era, men like John Ruskin and Charles Dickens. He was a hugely prolific artist, both painting and drawing. Richmond was also a noted engraver. He amassed a trenmendous body of work, including some wonderful portraits of children.
We have been unable to find any biographical information on this English artist. He was active during the late Regency and early Victorian eras and that he at least sometimes painted on wood. We have noted a portrait by him of Reginald Henry Bean with his wife Emma (daughter of J.R. Lucas of the Nailsea
Glassworks) and family on the Backwell Hill painted in 1829. It is a wonderful example of Regency clothing.
Briton Rivičre was an English artist born in London (1840). The French family name comes from Hugenout descent. We are not familiar with any paintings, however, depicting the Hugenouts. You might think he would paint at least one. Briton came from an artistic family. His father, William Rivičre, taught as the drawing-master at Cheltenham College. Tge College wa notable as tge first of the new Victorian public schools. He then taught art at Oxford. Briton was as a result, educated at Cheltenham and then Oxford where he earned a degree (1867). He did not study art, but was largely taught by his father. And after graduating from Oxford soon developed a respected reputation. He was best known for genre paintings as well as Biblical abd historical scenes. He exhibited at the Royal Academy while still aeenager (1857). He wa exhibing regularlyb (1863). His genre works usually involved animals to which he was particularly drawn. He painted a few sentimental woks involving children and animals.
William Roberts was an English artist who painte a wide range of subjects including including biblical, contemporarchy scenes, mythology, potraits, and other subjects including World war I. Included among his works are achool boy and a park scene with a school boy. His fther was an Irish carpenter. William was born in Hackney, London (1895). After finishing primary school and without the funds to attend art school full time, as a young teenager he began an apprenticeship with the advertising firm of Sir Joseph Causton Ltd. (1909). He wanted to become a poster designer. He attended evening classes at Saint Martin's School of Art in London. He won a London County Council scholarship to the Slade School of Art (1910). At this time he met several brilliant contemporaries: David Bomberg, Dora Carrington, Mark Gertler, Paul Nash, Christopher Nevinson, and Stanley Spencer. This group was
intrigued by the various artistic movements if the time, including Post-impressionism and Cubism. Roberts and Bomberg were particularly imporessed. After the Slade, He traveled to France and Italy just before World war I where he had further exposure to current art trends (1913). He joined Roger Fry's Omega Workshops and produced Cubist-style works such as 'The Return of Ulysses' He then got involved with Wyndham Lewis who was promoting a British alternative to Futurism. Ezra Pound suggested it be called Vorticism. Roberts himself prepered the description 'Cubist' for his works duting this period. The bulk of his work, however does not exhibit the shrp gepmetric distortions of cunism. He fought in world war I, eventully becoming a cubist.
George Romney was born in Kendal, Lancashire. His father was a cabinetmaker. Romney studied under portrait artist, Christopher Steele. Romney began his career traveling and painting portraits. He was sucessful and acquired a modest reputation in priovincial towns. This gave him the money to travel to Italy where he could both Classical and Renaissance works. Upon returning to England, Romney renwed his career in London, not only the capital but a lively cosmopolitan city which was where an artist could show off his work (1762). He did many wonderful portrairs. He desired to expand his body of wotk by painting historical works. He was never very successful with this. His work began to decline after meeting Emma Hart (1781). He became obseessed with Emma and painted numerous portraits of her. As a result, he had less time for commisions and his careet suffered. He eventually retuned to Kendal where he descended into mental illness. He left us, however, many notable portraits.
Dante Gabriel Rossetti is considered to be the central figure of the English Pre-Raphaelite artists. He not only started the original Brotherhood with Holman Hunt and John Everett Millais,but he was also the poetic inspiration of the movement. Daniel was born in London in London in 1828. His father had come to England in 1824 and was a professor of Italian at King's College, London. Rossetti is known for several glorious alegorical paintings. One. "The Beloved" included an American slave boy he noticed in London. It was painted while the Civil War was being fought in America.
Francis ("Frank") Owen Salisbury (1874–1962) was an very coservative, patiotic English artist.
He grew up in a large, prosperous working-class family. He was considered so delicate that he was educated at home. He had almost no formal schooling. His student teacher sister, Emilie, instructed him. He was apprenticed, at the age of 15 to his eldest brother who managed a stained glass company. Frank lerned about stained class, but his broher also got him into art school and he won a scholarship to the Royal Academy Schools. Hus interest in hishory is reflected in both his work and the neo-Tudor mansion he built in Hampstead. I as a youth was struck by his powerful book illustrations before I knew who he was. He was a prolific artist and active in seveal generes, including society portraits, large canvases of historical and ceremonial events, stained glass, and book illustration. He became known as 'Britain’s Painter Laureate'. His art was decidely realistic and conservative. He had no time for modern art. His father was a plumber which makes his status as a conservative society artist interesting. He painted leading figures of the Inter-War and World War II era, both Britis and American. Churchill and the royal family were his favorite subjects. His daughters often features in his work.
Edwin Dalton Smith was an accomplished pre-Victorian portratist specialising in portrait miniatures. He was taught by his father, Anker Smith (1759-1819), who was himself a noted engraver and miniaturist. Smith has left us some cahrming early 19th century portraits showing boys' clothing--although the small size does not provide the detail available in the work of other artists. Edwin’s skill in small-scale work is clearly shown in the extensive botanical work that he also did.
Some fascinating genre paintings illustrating Victorian life were left to us by the children of a remarkable, prominant London Jewish merchant family. England had expelled the Jews, actually robbed and killed many (13th century). Much later a few Jews began to trickle back to England, mostly from the Netherlands and and Germany, and live quietly. Only in the 19th century, however, were Jews allowed to live openly and practice their religion in England. The Solomons immigrated to England from the Low Countries (probably the Netherlands) or Germany in the late-18th century. They established a successful manufacturing and trading business. They were one of the first Jewish families accepted in London’s Bishopsgate neighborhood. The Solomon’s wealth brought social status. London had a small, but close-knit Jewish community. They both wanred to maintain their Jewish heritage, but at the same time assimilating into fashionable London society. Meyer (Michael) Solomon became the first Jew which the City of London honored with the Freedom of the City shows how well they suceeded. Meyer and Kate Solomon had eight children born between 1824-40. Kate was artistically enclined and clearly influenced her children. The children were brought up in comfortable Victorian circumstances. Three of the children became notable artists. The youngest, Simeon (1840-1905) was a fixture in the Pre-Raphaelite aesthetic movement, His older brother and sister, Abraham (1824-62) and Rebecca (1832-86) produced wonderful genre works providing important insights into mid-19th century Victorian Britain. Their genre works are often judged as maudling when viewed with our modern sensibilities, but here they wonderfully express Victorian values. These works are somewhat similar to how Norman Rockwell is viewed in America. Children are commonly pictured in these genre scenes, especially those by Rebecca who adds a woman's perspect.
Charles Spencelayh was born in Rochester, Kent (1865). His father was Henry Spencelayh, an engineer and iron brass founder. We know nothing about his childhood, but coming from a prosperous family we can assume it was a pleasant comfortable one. His father could afford a quality education. He entered the National Art Training School (Royal College of Art) (1885). He then studied at the Royal Academy as well as in Paris. He was a very private man. Somne aithors have described him as a mysterman. Spencelayh began exhibiting (1892). He was a masterful academic artist, working in oil, water color, and other mediums. He is known for his detailed genre studies. He odten painted portraits in genre settings. We note quite a few images of older men and very few images of children. His sibjects are invariably everyday people involved in ordinary life. His paintings are thus a gold mind for those interested in life during the late-19th and early-20th century. He is rather the anthesis of Seargent, no rich people in elegant clothing, but the clothing is depicted in extrodinary detail.
We note a fine watercolor on ivory of a young boy leaning on a desk and holding a book (figure 2). Note the lace collar and use of buttons. This minaiture was reprtedly attributed by Sotheby's, London to Jeremiah Steele, an English artist working in the first third of the 19th century. It is undated, but was probably painted about 1820.
Frederic's parents were Septimus Stephens of Aberdeen and Ann (née Cooke) of Walworth, London and grew up in Lambeth, a nearby London neighborhood. Frederic was disabled as a boy in an accident (1837). As a result, he was educated privately at home. He later attended University College School, London. He aspired to be an artist and with his talent he entered the Royal Academy Schools (1844). Here he met John Everett Millais and William Holman Hunt. He subsequentky joined their Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (1848). He is known to have modeled fir them and other Pre-Raphaelites. He is described as the only non-painter among the Pre-Raphaelites.
This was because he was so disappointed with his own paintings that he decided to stop painting and bcome an art critic. He destroyed his paintings (1850). Only three survive. 'The Proposal' and 'Morte d'Arthur' do not seem of great artistic value. 'Mother and Child' on the other hand seems a competent work.
Julian was born in Walton-on-Thames, Surrey, England (1857). He was the youngest child of noted sculptor and oet William Wetmore Story, and the brother of sculptor Thomas Waldo Story. His parents led a cosmopolitan life in the guilded age of pre-World War I Europe. They spent a great deal of time in Italy and we assume Jullian did also as a boy. He was educatd at Eton College and Brasenose College, Oxford University. While his brother followed his father's focus on sculpture, Julian chose painting as an artistic career. He studied in Munich and Paris. His skills began to be recognized with notable rewards (1880s). His body of work is mostly portraits and include the Prince of Wales, the future Edward VII. We do not notice many portraits of children, but do notice a stunning portrait of He emigrated to America after establishing his artistic reputation. We are not sure why. We suspect America's phenomenal economic suceess offered many lucrarive commissions as well as his American wife were factors. He setup his studionin Philadelphia. He married Emma Eames, a young American diva stunning American and European audiences (1891). She divirced him (1907). He then married Elaine Sartori Bohlen (1909). They divided their time between America and Italy. The marriasge produced three children. He died in Philadelphia (1919).
Thomas Stothard was a noted painter, designer, and book illustrator. He was born in London (1755).
His father was a successful innkeeper at Long Acre. He was a delicate child and therefore his parents when he was 5 years old sent him to live with relatives in the country which was seen as more healthful.
He began school at Acomb. He also went to school at Tadcaster and at Ilford (Essex). He demonstrated a talent for drawing. His father thus apprenticed to a draughtsman of patterns for brocaded silks who had a shop at Spitalfields. Stothard as a diversion drew illustrations inspired by poets he read. His drawings were noted by Harrison, editor of the Novelist's Magazine. Stothard decided to persue a career in art. He was admitted as a student at the Royal Academy (1778). He left a prolific body of work. He liked best to paint historical sunjects, especially smaller sized works. Even so, some of his historical work was of monumental sizes. His most memorable commissions were the decorative staircase at Burghley House and the dome of the Advocates’ Library in Edinburgh. He also did illustrations ffor books, mostly novels and poetry.
Robert Thorburn is best known as a minaturist. He was born at Dumfries in Scotland (1818). He was the son of a tradesman and was educated at Dumfries High School. He developed a love of art at an early age. A neighbor ladytook an interest in Robert. he afforded him the opportunity at the age of 15 years he was able to enter the Royal Scottish academy in Edinburgh (1833). He gained distinction there and 3 years later entered the Royal Academy in Lomdon (1836). Because of his Dumfries connection, he gaimed the patronage of the Duke of Buccleuch which helped him obtain many of his first commissions. While born in Scotland, his career is largely associated with England. He and Sir William Charles Ross were the most popular minaturits at the time with impressive society clinentel. Thornburn mostly painted on ivory. He received his first commission from Queen Victoria (1846). More followed including one with the Prince of Wales. His minatures were a little larger than the standrd and often had backgrounds. Thornburn received a gold medal. Thornburn began his career at the precise time photograph was invented (1839) which gradually undmined the popularity of minatures. He turned to oil painting, but with only moderate success. We notice a portrait of the aging Fuke of Wellington with his grand chidren (1852).
This French painter fled France after the French Commune in 1871 and lived and worked in England where he was widly popular. Modern critics consider his work insipid and sugary. Sugary it is, but it is also technically skilled and provides us marvelosly detailed windows into the life of the Victorian family--however idealized. His images provide fascinating glimes on the children appearing in all the static studio shots of the late 19th Century.
The distinguished English painter Henry Scott Tuke devoted almost his entire career to painting boys and young men. We were not sure wheter to include him on the HBC list, however, as he generall painted them nude or semi-nude without much attention to clothing. Thus his work is of less interest to HBC than other painters we have listed who often painted only a few boys. We finally decided to include him when a reader submitted this entry because as HBC has evolved over time we have gradually devoped into a wider concern with childhood than an exclusive concern with clothing. Tuke's favorite subject was nude boys in seaside locations (usually Cornwall), but he did paint some images of boys who are partially clothed. There is nothing prurient or pornographic in his work. An example which is now in the Bristol City Museum in England, shows a boy wearing only a shirt, underwear, and straw hat, while his companion is already in the sea with his head above the water. It is quite a charming evocation of boyish innocence.
Joseph Mallord William Turner was one of the geat English masters. He is best known as a romanticist landscape painter. He did superb water colors and was alsoa noted print maker. His style is often seen as laying the foundation for impresionism. He was not as highly regarded in his day, perhps because realism was mor highly regarded at the time. Heis niw en as one of thegints of English art. His work is not of great impoerance fir HBC as he dud not do many portraits. abd when fifures did apper they wre not sketched out in detail. Oe very helpful portarait was King George IV's state visit to Scotland (1822).
We know little about English artist W.R. Waters, except that he was active in the mid-19th century. We do notice a portrait he painted of an unidentified child in 1851. The child wears a burgandy dress with a lace collar and straw hat. We are unsure if the child is a boy or girl. The child holds a riding crop which suggesrs to us that it may be a boy. The child leans on a large St. bernard dog.
George Frederick Watts was a major English artist during the Victorian era. Watts knew most of the Pre-Raphaelites, and was an important influence on the younger ones. He can not be easily clasified as part of any School or group. He struck on his own and is especially known for main allegorical pictures of consideranle note. He also painted many portraits providing us a few glimpses of clothing styles incliding boys' clothing.
This American primitive artist painted many New England portraits, providing much valuable information on individual fashion in the era before children's fashions were extensilvely covered. This was was especially important in the a period before photography began to provide detailed images.
Richard Westall (1765-1836) was an English artist and illustrator. His younger half-brother was William Westall (1781–1850), a well-travelled landscape painter. Richard was apprenticed to a heraldic silver engraver (1779). Richard's interest led him paintuing. Of course art work at the time could only be reproduced through engraving. He did many portraits. He is best known for his portraits of Lord Byron. He was also Queeen Victoria's drawing master. His works include both commissioned portraits as well as depictions of historical events and genre scenes. He was very interested in literature and did also did literary depictions, presumably explaining his portraits of Byron and other literary figures. As an early watercolorist, Westall did work that was sought after by publishers wanting to use the medium to illustrate books by popular poets. He became perhaos the leadung book illudstrator of the age. We notice one of his paintings dated to the mid-1790s, shows a peasant boy. A faithful dog was with him so he may have been a shepherd boy although there are no sheeo present.
HBC at this time has virtually no information on English portratist John. R. Wildman. We do know that he was active during 1823-39. We know of one charming portarit of children showing a boy wearing a skeleton suit, but are unfamiliar with his complete body of work.
Winterhalter was one of the most important Victorian portrait painters. While German, he painted the crown heads of Europe. He was Victoria's favorite portrait painter. He painted two of the most famous portrits used by HBC. One of course is the young Edward VII wearing a white sailor suit--few paintings had more impact on boys' fashions. The other famous Winterhalter painting used by HBC is of the young royal family. While Winthalter was German, he did so many commissions in England, especially for the royal family, that he could not be omitted in a list of English art.
Joseph Wright is sometimes referred to s Wright of Derby. He was an inovative paintr who is noted for the artistic treatment of industrial subjects. He lived and workjed in Derby which was at the centr of England's industial develoment. He is also knon as particularly gifted in his ability to depict artificial light. He did severl portrairs, including some of children.
W.F. Yeames was the son of a wealthy British diplomat. william displayed artistic talents at quite a youthful
age. His parents encouraged his interest in art as a young boy. The family began an extended toured Italy in 1841 when William was 6 years old, in part to expose him to the work of the Italian masters. While still in Italy, William's father died in 1842. The family then went to live in Dresden. William was tutored at hom with special attention given to artistic studies. William in while only 13 years old moved to London. There he studied under a noted sculptor, Westmacott, as well as George Scharf. After his studies in London, William again traved in Italy. Hi first exhibit at the Royal Academy after is return to England during 1854. His traditional style and heroic historical subjects made him very popular with the English establishment. He became ARA in 1866 and was elected RA in 1878, and finally Librarian at the Academy. He held many other offices such as Curator of the Painted Hall at Greenwich. One of his more notable paintings was a Civil War scene, "Where did you last see your father?"
We have found some paintings which we believe to be English, but of course are not sure. Several offer fascinating depictions of children's clothes. Unfortunaly as the artist is unknown, it is difficult to date the paintings with any precession.
We have for archival purposes ordered these artists alphabetically. We will eventually make a chronological version of this page to allow the reader to better follow fashion trends over time as illustrated in this work. We have used the list, for example to try to assess the ringlet curl fashion in England which can be viewed in the English ringlet curl section of HBC where we have listed individual examples.
Solomons: A Family of Painters (Geffrye Museum, London, 1985).
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