Modern uniformed youth movements first appeared in Europe during the late 19th century. The first group was the Boy's Brrgade which appeared in Scotland . A more secular movement, the Boy Scout movement, developed out of the Brigade in England after the turn of the 20th century. Another early group was the German Wandervogel movement. Early youth groups differeed on the involvement of religion. Although the British Scouts were a secular group. Scouting quickly spread throughout Europe. when Scout groups were founded in European countries, religion was a more important factor than in England and in many countries, the Catholic Church insisted on a sepsrate association. There were also smaller groups organized by churches. In the more politically charged atmosphere following World War I, political groups founded youth movements. The best known was the Hitler Youth in Germany. There were Fascist groups in Italy, Spain, and other countruies. The Communists founded the Young Pioneerv movement. After World War II, Europe was split between the Scout movement in Western Europe and the Young Pioneer movement in the Communist countries. No other group was allowed in Communist countries, but a variety of smaller youth groups of vrying character were permitted in Western Europe. The Pioneer movement colspsed after the fall of the Iron Curtain and the disolution of the Soviet Union. The Scouts are now the principal youth movement, but there are several smaller groups as well.
We do not yet have an Albanian youth group page. We do have some information on Albanian youth groups. The first group we know of was Scouting which was founded (1922), but was not very important and supressed by the Tlalians when they invaded the country (1939). The Italians replaced it with a Fascist youth movement, the Albanian Lictor Youth ( Djelmnia e Liktorit Shqiptar /I talian: Gioventù del Littorio Albanese--GLA). It was the youth wing of the Italian dominated Albanian Fascist Party. It also was not very important and disappeared when the Italians surrendrered to the Allies and the Germans nriefly occuped the country. The Communists seize control of the country as the Germans withdrew from the Balkans (1944). They organized the Young Pioneers after the War, but we do not yet have any information on the Pioneer movemebnt in Albania. After the fall of Communism (1989), Scouting was organized in Albania.
We have little information on Austria at this time. The story here is rather complicated because of all the political changes that Austria has undergone. We believe that the Wandervogel was active in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, although most of our references deal with Germany. Unfortunately we have no information specifically about Austria. The Boy Scouts were founded before World War I, but I do not know if there was a national Austro-Hungarian Scout organization or separate organizations in the constituent parts of the Empire like Austria and Hungary as well as other areas of the Empire. There was an Austrian Wandervogel, the only country as far as we know where the Wandervogel operated outside of Germany. After World War I there wasan Austrian Scout organization. There were also a variety of other youth groups, but I have no details at this time. The Hitler Youth were outlawed by the Government, but operated supretiously. After the Anschluss (1938) became the only permitted youth group. Austria itself was annexed by the Reich so there was no Austrian Hitler Youth, but rather only one comprehensive German Hitler Youth movement. After Wotld War II the Scouts were restablished in the Western occupation zone. I presume the Soviets set up the Pioneer movement in the Eastern occupation zone. Today the only Austrian youth group we know of is the Scouts.
The Austro-Hungarian Empire was disolved at the end of World War I (1918). We have little information at this time on youth organizations. We believe that the Wandervogel movement which appeared in Germany was also popular in Austria, but have no information yet to confirm this. We also do not know if Wandervogel had any appeal to the non-German nationalities outside Austria. There was a strong German nationalist element to Wanndervogel. We also believe that the Boy Scouts were organized. We are not sure if there was an Empire-wide organization. Rather associations my have been organized by the various national groups.
The primary Belgian youth group is the Scouts. The Scouts were founded in Belgian soon after they appeared in Britain. The grew steadily and their prestige was enhanced by their role in World War I. Scouts dominated the youth movement after the War. After the NAZI invasion and occupation, Scouting was banned. The authorized collaborationist group organized a group similar to the Hiltler youth. A similar group was organized in Flanders where Hitler Youth groups had bee organized for the Germans living there. Aftter liberation, the Scouts quickly reorganized. There are now several Scout associations in Belgium. The VNJ is popular among some Flemish boys and promotes independence from Belgium.
The Boy Scouts were organized in Bulgaria during the early-20h century. Groups began organizing local Scout troops
(1911-13). Scouters founded a national Scout organization (1923). Bulgarian Scouting participated in the World Organization of the Scout Movement (1924-40). After World War I the Bolshevicks banned Russian Scouting. Bulgaria was one of the places where White Russian émigrés settled and established Scout troops. The Government responding to increasing Germzn influence, suspended Scouting (1940). The Royal government organized a Bulgarian nationalistic youth group--the Brannik. This meant Guardians. The group was in part modeled on the Hitler Youth. After the World War II, the Communists seized power. The Bugarian Communust Party (BCP) banned Scouting and followed the Soviet model set up a party youth organization--the Communist Youth League of Bulgaria which was later renamed the Dimitrov Communist Youth League of Bulgaria and abbreviated as theo Komsomol. The organization for children was the Young Pioneers. The League sought to instill Socialist values among Bulgarian youth and to recruit future Party members. Membership peaked at 1.5 million members (1987). After the fall of Communism in Bulgaria, the Pioneers were disbanned. Without government support, there was little interest in continuing the organization. Scouting was reestablished.
The Czech Republic was formed from the Czech areas of Czechoslovakia after Slovakia withdrew (1989). We know that the Boy Scouts continued, but as a Czech organization. We believe there is only one Scout association in the country. We have virtually no information about the Czech Scouts at this time. We also note a Czech Hiking Club. They are organized something like the Scouts with diffeent levels, but they do not have a uniform like Scouts. We do not know of any other youth groups at this time.
Following youth groups in Czechoslovakia is rather complicated by the many political changes affecting the country. Before World War I it was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Scouing was established at this time, but we are unsure how it was organized. After the War Czechoslovakia was created in 1918. Scouting was the major youth movement, but I am not sure how the different nationalities affected the organization. Many German Sudeten boys wanted to join the Hitler Youth, but were not allowed ton wear the uniform. The country was invaded and partitioned by NAZI Germany in 1938-39. Part of Czechoslovakia was annexed to the Reich and German boys joined the Hitler Youth. I am not sure what youth groups existed are were allowed in the rest of the former territiries of the country like Slovakia. After World War II in 1945 Scouting briefly appeared. The Communists seized power in 1948. Scouting was banned and the only permitted youth group was the Young Pioneers. After the fall of Communism in 1989, Scouting appeared again. The country split in 199? into the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Scouting exists in both countries. There is also a uniformed Czech group called the BVM, but I have no informatiojn on them.
HBU has only limited information on Danish youth groups. The most popular group is the Boy Scouts. The NAZIs attempted to create a nationalist group during World war II, but had little success. A Danish author remembers joining the Boys' Brigade when he was growing up.
Uniformed youth groups became very popular. The Boys' Brigade was the first such group which appeared in the 1880s. Quite a number of other grouos were organized. In the 1900s these groups were surpased by the Scouts. Baden Powell first conceived of Scouting as a element of the Boys' Brigade. English boys, however, were attraccted by the outdoor activities and the more secular approach. Scouting was organized as a separate group and soon became the predominate youth organization in England. Unlike some other youth groups, Baden Powel promoted an internationist approach and the movement began to spread around the world.
We have little information on Estonian youth groups at this time. Scouting began tp appear in informally in Estonia while the country was still part of Tsarist Russia. Theearliest reported activites are note a few years before World War I (1912). I know of no other youth groups in Estonia at the time. After the World War I as Estonia fought for its independence from the the Bolsheviks, the Eesti Skautide Ühing (Estonian Scout Association) was formed (1919). The Estonian Scout Association was one of the founding members of the World Scout Organization (1922). Scouting was popular in Estonia during the inter-war years, but we have few details at this time. The Soviet Union occypied Estonia (1940) and banned Scouting. Any attempt to participate surepticiously in Scouting was dangerous as the Soviets view it as a Fascist organization and counter-revolutionary. I am not sure to what extent the Soviet Pioneer movement was organized in Estonia pripr to the NAZI invasion. The NAZIs invaded the Soviet Union (June 1941) and within weeks reached Estonia (July). I do not know if the NAZIs attempted to organize any nationalist youth group. The Red Army retook Estonia (1944) and for several decades the only youth group allowed to function was the Young Pioneers. The Eesti Skautide Ühing was reformed (1989) as Estonia began to move toward independence.
We do not know much about Finnish youth movements. At this time all we know about is the Scouts/Guides and Pioneers. Suomen Partiolaiset (Finnish Scouting--GSF) is the combined Finnish Guide and Scout movement. Scouting was founded in Finland soon after the British Scout movement (1910). It was part Tsarist Russia, They were registered with the central organization of the Tsarist Russian Scout movement (Русский Скаут). Finnish Scouting was among the charter members of the World Organization of the Scout Movement (1922). Guiding started at the same time (1910). The Finns were also among the founding members of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts. Finnish Scouting is a nonpolitical, nonsectarian and multilingual organization. Unlike many European countries, there are no religious-based associations. The small size of the populatiin may have bee a factor. The name of the association uses both the Finnish and Swedish languages. Its religious neutrality is reflected in the Finnish Scout promise, which begins "I promise to love my God..." The Girl Guide Association and the Boy Scout Association merged and formed Suomen Partiolaiset (1972). Scouting is very popular in Finland where outdoor activities and nature are a national pasion. The national ethos fits in with Scoutings commitment to live with nature and protect it. This was from the begonning one of the cornerstones of Finnish Scouting. The association has about 75,000 members. The only other youth organization we know of at this time was the Young Pioneers. Finland manged to gain independence after the Russian Revolution, but there was a substantial Communist Party for some time and the country narrowly avoided annexation by the Soviet Union during World War II. Finland is one of the few non-Communist countries that had a Pioneer movement of any importance. The Pioneers unlike the Scouts highly political. we believe Pthe Pioners to have been popular for sme time, buthave been able to find very little informtion.
France adopted the Scouting movement in the 1900s. HBU knows of no uniformed youth groups in France before the introduction of Scouting. Unlike England and America, several competing Scouting associations developed in France, organized primarily around relogious groups. I do not know of other youth groups organized. Some political parties may have had youth groups, but HBU does not believe they were of great importance--having trouble competing with Scouting. The only other French group that HBU is aware of at this time is the youth group by the Vichy political group duruing World War II.
The first German youth group was the Wandervogel. Scouting also became popular, although its association with England was not an advantage in England. After World War I, the Wanndervogel splintered into many different groups. Competing political parties also organized their own youth groups. The Hitler Youth was one such group, organized by the SA as the NAZI youth movement. The NAZIs abolished or absorbed all youth groups after taking power in 1933. Scout was reorganized after the NAZi's defeat in 1945. The Wanndervogel is also taday a popular youth movement, active all over Germany.
Greece was one of the first countries to form a Scouting troop. The first Scout group was organized in 1910. Greek Scouts are considered very traditional (old fashioned) and close to the principles laid by Baden Powell. Their uniforms have changed a little since the 1940s and all boys of all ages wear khaki shorts and shirt and brown knee socks. Sometimes even adult scouts (as old as 50) wear shorts. We do not know of any other important Greek uniformed youth group with the exception of the Ethniki Organosi Neolaias (EON--National Organization of Youth) which operated from 1936-40.
We do not yet have much information about Hungarian youth movements. Wndervogel may have existed before Workd war I, but that was a largely German youth movemnent. The Scouting movement was founded in Hungary before World War I. We believe that before World war II that it was the country's principal youth movement, but did not have a large membership. We are ubnsure about Fascist youth groups before abd during World war II. After World War II we believe the Communist Government banned Scouting, although we do not hve details at this time. The Communist founded the Young Pioneeer movement which was similar to the movement in other Soviet Eastern European satellites. The movement disappeared with the fall of the Communist Government.
HBC currently only has information about Irish Scouts. We know of no other uniformed Irish boys' group. We speculate that the Boys' Brigade may have been active in Ireland. We also wonder about the Irish scouts which may have been seen as an English movement at first. Presumably most Catholic boys in the 1900s and 1910s could not have afforded to paticipate. Thus began to change with the craetion of the Irish Free State in the early 1920s.
HBU knows of no Italian uniformed organizations that formed during the late 19th century. Scouts were organized in the early 20th century and were the dominate youth group in the 1910s and early 1920s. Musolini's Fascists were the first western European country to abolish Scouting and establish a mandatory youth group--the Balial. After World War II the Scouts again appeared and was the dominate youth movement. HBU knows of no other significant uniformed youth movement in Italy.
We do not yet have much information about the Latvian youth movement. Until World War I, Latvia was part of the Russian Empire. After the War Latvia along with the other Baltic states achieved its independence. We know that there was an active Scout movement. We do not know if any other youth movements were popular in Latvia during the inter-War era. The NAZI-Soviet Non-Agression Pact divided Eastern Europe into zones of infuence (1939). The Soviets after the beginning of World war II incorporated Latvia as a Soviet Reoublic (1940). The Soviets supressed Scouting. Soon afterward the NAZIs invaded and occupied the country (1941). I do not think the NAZI authorities launched a Latvian youth movement, but have few details at this time. The Soviets after reoccupying the country (1944) founded the Young Pioneer movement. This was a Soviet youth movement and not a specifically Latvian movement. Many Russians moved to Latvia during the Soviet era. As in the rest of the Sovier Union, the Young Pioneeer movement disappeared after the disolution of the Soviet Union and the ending of government support and subsidies. The Scoting movement after Latvia achieved its independence has been revived.
We have limited information on Leichtenstein. We have noted that Scouts have been active since the 1930s, but do not know of any other groups.
We do not yet have much information about the Lithuanian youth movement. Until World War I, Lithuamia was part of the Russian Empire. After the War Lithuania along with the other Baltic states achieved its independence. We know that there was an active Scout movement. We do note a Jewish Scout patrol in 1927 before World war II. We do not know if any other youth movements were popular in Lithuania during the inter-War era. The NAZI-Soviet Non-Agression Pact divided Eastern Europe into zones of infuence (1939). There was some disagreement over Lithuania. The NAZIs seized Memel even before sugning the Non-Agression Pact and invading Poland (1939). The Soviets after the beginning of World war II incorporated Lithuania as a Soviet Reoublic (1940). The Soviets supressed Scouting. Soon afterward the NAZIs invaded and occupied the country (1941). I do not think the NAZI authorities launched a Lithuanian youth movement, but have few details at this time. The Soviets after reoccupying the country (1944) founded the Young Pioneer movement. This was a Soviet youth movement and not a specifically Lithuanian movement. Many Russians moved to Lithuania during the Soviet era. As in the rest of the Sovier Union, the Young Pioneeer movement disappeared after the disolution of the Soviet Union and the ending of government support and subsidies. The Scoting movement after Lithuania achieved its independence has been revived.
Luembourg is a very small country east of Belgium wedged between Belgium, France, and Germany. We have not been able to fond much information on youth grpips other than Scouting.
Malta is a small island archepeligo (two islands) south of Sicily, about rqial distance from Tunisia and Libya. It has astoried history, one of the most fought over places in European history because of its strategic location. Britain seized Malta during the Napoleonic War (1800). As a British Crown Colony, the British organized a Scout troop quickly after Scouting was founded in Britain (1909). At this time the only youth organization we know of is Scouting.
The major Dutch youth groups have been the Scouts and a nationalist group during the German occupation which was based on a pre-War right-wing group. There is not much to report on the modern Netherlands. Holland now lacks the plethora of scouts and scout-like movements of France, Belgium, and Germany. There were five associationsm but they were united in 1973. There is now but one movement, Scouting Nederland, and I believe it has discarded uniforms long ago. A Dutch contributor to HBC reports, "I haven’t noticed a single scout uniform since I came to live in my home country." The Germans promoted a Nordic youth movement during the World War II occupation. There was also Hitler Youth units for german boys living in the Netherlands.some of which have religious foundation. There is not much to report on the modern Netherlands. Holland lacks the plethora of scouts and scout-like movements of France, Belgium, and Germany. There is but one movement, Scouting Nederland, and I believe it has discarded uniforms long ago.
The principal youth groups in Norway are Scouts and Guides. HBU does not know of any uniformed boys' youth groups, except the Boy Scouts, in Norway before the NAZI invasion (April 1940). The Norwegian Government in fact had banned the wearing of political uniforms (1935) so political parties could not organize uniformed youth units. This changed almost over night after the German invasion when a a virtual riot of adult uniforms appeared. This was especially the case after Hitler officially asppointed Vidkun Quisling "Minister President". The Quisling and the NAZI occupation authorities organized a youth group and tried to recruit older boys for the war effort. Scouting was banned. Few Norwegian boys, but in 1941 Scouting and other youth groups were banned and all Norwegian boys had to join the Nasjonal Samling youth movement, the Umghird. After the War, Scouting was reestanlished. There are also a number of small groups. Buekorps ("Bow Corps" or "Archery Brigade") are traditional marching neighborhood youth organizations in Bergen. Natur og Ungdom (NU) which translates Nature and Youth, also known in English as Friends of the Earth Youth Norway is a recently organized Norwegian youth environment protecting organisation.
HBU has very limited information on Polish youth groups at his time. The Scouts are the most important group. We do not know of any other groups in the early 20th century. The modern Polish nation came into existence only after World War I in 1919. We know nothing about Polish youth groups either before or after 1919 other than the Scouts. The NAZIs when they occupied western Poland in 1939 disbanded the couts and did not organize a pro-NAZI youth group as they did in the countries they occupied in many other countries. The Soviets organized Pioneer groups in the area that they occupied in 1939. After the Soviets liberated Poland in 1944, the Pioneers were reestablished by the Communist Government and the Scouts outlawed. Scouting was not restablished until 19??.
We have very limited information on Portuguese youth groups. The only group we know of at his time is the Scouts. The Scouts are known as the Grupo Escoteiros de Portugal. Strangely the Portuguese colony of Macau off China was the home for the first Portuguese Boy Scout Group. The group was founded in 1911. The Macau Scout Leaders came back to Portugal and founded the Associação de Escoteiros de Portugal (Boy Scouts Association of Portugal) in 1913. We believe Portugal had a relatively small Scout movement, in part because Portugal was such a poor country during the era that Scouting was especially popular in Europe.
We know of no youth organizations in Romania until the Boy Scouts inspired by Lord Baden Powell was organized. The first Scours were organized in Romania just before the outbreak of World War I (1914). The Romanian Scout asocuation was Cercetaşii României. Scouts were active on the home front during the War. The Romanian Scouts were a founding member of the World Scouting Movement after the War. Scouting flourished in Romania during the inter-War period as a basically middle class movement. The first Romanian Jamboree was held (1930).
Both Fascism and Communism grew in importance after the Depression began and the NAZIs seized power in Germany. This affected the attitudes of toung people and extremist groups began to organize with youth auxileries. Scouting remained a largely apolitical oasis among the increasingly devisive Romanian society. Romanian was becoming ungonvernable
King Carol II seized control of the Government and adopted dictatorial powers (1937). The Government established the National Renaissance Front to replace the fractous psrliamentary system. The Government closed down the Scouting movement and other youth groups to create the Străjeria--a single national youth group as a unifying step. Romania was forced by the NAZIs to enter the Axis and eventually World War II as a German ally. In the final year of the War, the Soviet Red Army entered and occupied Romania (1944). Scouters attempted to revive the Scouting movement, but this proved politically dangerous. The Communist Government forced on Romania by the occupying Soviets set up the Young Pioner movement--a manditory Communist group. Alternstive youth groups were outlawed. The overthrow of Communism resulted in the collapse of the Pioneer Movement which had no real support outside of the Communist Party (1989). .
Cercetaşii României was reestablished (1991). It was recognized by the WOSM (1993).
The Scout appeared in Russia in the early 20th century as in all European countries. It was, however, a very small group, primarily limited to the small middle class. The Pioneers were a truly mass movement. The Soviet Union in the 1920s was the first country to ban Scouting, replacing it with its own youth mocement--the Young Pioneers. The Young Pioneers in the Soviet Union became the largest youth movement in the world--until the Communists seized power in China. Unlike the Scouts, however, Young Pioneers quickly vanished when the Soviet Union desintigrated and government subsidies were withdrawn. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Scouting has again appeared in Russia.
The world's first uniformed youth group was born in Scotland--the Boys' Brigade. The Boys' Brigade soon became primarily an English group and Scouting became the primary uniformed youth group in Scotland. The Scottish Cub and Scout uniforms were quite similar, the primary difference being that Scouts wore kilts. Cubs could also wear kilts. bit it was not as common. Scottish Scouts, but not the Cubs, also wore destinctive headwear. We do not know, however, how popular these groups were in Scotland. HBU knows of no other important Scottish youth group.
The first Serbian youth groups we know of was the Boy Scouts organized in 1911. We do not think it was a very large movement by the time World War broke out (1914). Serbiawas occupied by the Central Powers (1915). I do not know about Scouting ctivities during the War. Scouting became more prominant after the War, but Serbia became of Yugoslavia and I am not sure about the organization of Scouting during the inter-War era as this was a period in which ethnic and religious animosities became increasungly pronounced. Russian emigrees organized Scouting units. Sokol groups were organized in Serbia. I'm not sure if there were other nationalist groups. The Scouts had to suspend activities after the German World War II invasion (1941). After the War the Communist Partisans under Tito seized control of the country. The Communists did not ban Scouting as was the case of the Soviet Eastern European sateliites countries. Instead the Communists seized control of the movement and it addition added the Young Pioneer movement. The WOSM discontinued its recognition of Serbian and other Yugoslav Scouting. The Pioneer movement disappeared with the fall of Communism. Yugoslavia began to desintegrate (1990s). Scouting movements in each republic joined the WOSM. Servia tried to prevent the other republics from leaving the Union, but all that was left of Yugoslavia when the country rejoined the WISM was Serbia and Montenegro. Montenegro decided to disolve its ties with Serbia and declared independene (2006).
Slovakian has many political manifestations. It was a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in the 19th century. We assume that Scouting was fouinded there in the 1910s. After World War I Slovakia became part of newly independent Czechoslovalia. We do not know id Slovakians had an indepoendent Scout asoociation. Just before the NAZI invasion of Czechoslovalia (March 1939), Slovakia wiuthdrew from Czechoslovakia and became an enthusiastic supporter of the NAZIs. We assume that Scouting was prohibited and some kind of Fascist youth group functioned at this time. After the World war II Scouting may have briefly reappeared, but after the 1948 coup the Young Pioneers were established as the only permitted youth group. With the return toi democracy, the Pioneers disappeared and Scouting reappeared. Slovakia withdrew from Czechoslovakia a second time to form a separate country (1989). We believe that there is a small Boy Scout association, but have no details at this time.
Slovenia is today an independent country. It has had a tumultous history in achieving its independence. Slovenia for many years was controlled by Austria. We believe that the Scouts were organized in Slovenia in the 1910s, although we have few details at this time. It seems that Scouts were organized by nationalities within the Austro-Hungarian Empire. When the Austo-Hungarian Empire was disolved at the end of World War I, Slovenia was made a part of Yugoslavia. Again Scout groups seem to have been on a national basis. The Slovenes were able to remain out of the increasingly bitter conflict between Croats and Serbs which convulsed Yugoslavia. The only importantvyouth group we know of was the Scouts. The NAZIs invaded Yugoslavia and Slovenia was partionioned between Germany and Italy. The country was actually annexed into Germany and Itlaly. Presumably there were Hitler Youth and Balial units organized, but we have few details. Tito's Partisans took power after the War. Scoutng was banned and the Young Pioneers made the only permitted youth group. Tito also suppressed any expression of national and ethnic animosity. Serbian efforts to dominate the country after Tito resulted in a series of wars as the constituent republic attempted to seceed from te Yugoslavian Federaton. Slovenia was the first to seceed and did so with a relaively short, bloodless war (1991). After the fall of Communism. the Pioneers disappeared. As far as we know, Scuting is currently the only active youth movement.
The principal Spanish youth group is the Scouts. At this time we only know of one other Spanish youth group--the Fascist youth organization under the Franco regime. There may have been a Pioneer group during the Civil War era, but we have no details at this time. We know, however, relatively little about this group or the Scout movement during the Fascist era. With the fall of Fascism this group disappeared and currently the Scouts are the only important Spanish youth group.
We have very little information on Swedish youth groups at this time. We know that Scouting was popular in Sweden, but we have very little information about the movement in Sweden at this time. We have no information on any other Swedish youth groups other than Scouting. Sweden was not occupied by the Germans in World War II thus there were no Fascist youth groups promoted by the NAZIs. I do not know if there were any indiginous nationalist youth movement in Sweden.
We do not yet have much information on Swiss youth groups. The Boy Scouts began to orgnize soon after the movement was founded in Britain (1910) and Guiding began a few years later. We note a variety of different youth groups active in the early 20th century, but have few details about them at this time. We suspect that there may have been some Wandervogel groups in the early 20th century, perhaps even predating Scouting.
There were the "Jungschaar" a protestant youth movement and the "Jungwacht" a Catholic Youth movement. We also note the "Kadetten". This was a paramilitary organisation, which flurished mainly in the German part of Switerland and was mandatory in
certain Mirddleschools. I think the Kadetten disapperaed in the 1960s. There was not much difference between youth groups in the French and German speaking areas of Switzerland. We suspect that Hitler Youth groups were organized cladestinely during the 1930s, but have few details at this time.
We have limited information about the Ukraine at thus time. There was a Scouting movement founded there before World War I when the Ukraine was still part of Tsarist Russia. After the victory of the Red Army in the Civil War, the Ukraine became part of the Soviet Union. As in Russia, the Communists banned Scouting and the Pioneers became the only permitted youth organization. There was no separate Ukranian Pioneer movement, byt rather the children particiapted in the general Soviet Pioneer movement. Several important Pioneer summer camps were created in the Ukraine on the relatively balmy Black Sea coast. With the collapse of the Soviet Union at the end of 1991, the Pioneer movement disappeared and Scouting was restablished. We also note what looks to be a youth organization operating summer camps in post-Soviet Ukraine. It appears to be using summer camp facilities of the old Pioneer movement. We know nothing about the groups, even if it is Russian, Ukranian, or some kind of international group. We note that some children from the former Soviet Central Asian republics attend the camps.
Ulster is of course part of the United Kingdom, located and often refrred to as northeren Ireland. We note some photographs even in the 19th century suggesting some fraternal organizations, perhaps associated with the the religious and political dividsions in Ulster. We do not know how important they were. We know of only two major boys' youth organizations in Ulster, the Boy Scouts and the Boys' Brigade. As far as we know, Ulster Scouting was essentially the same as English Scouting. We know of no significant difference. At the time of the founding of both Scouting and the Boys' Brigade, all of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom. After World War, the Irish began to move toward independence. Protestant northern Ireland remained loyal to Britain and are thus often referred to as loyalists. We assume a badge identified Ulster Cubs and Scouts. We wonder if English boys in Ulster also wore that badge. Perhaps it was seen as a unit identifier. We know nothing about the Boys' Brigade in Ulster. Hopefully an Ulster reader will be able to provide us more information.
Wales is of course part of the United Kingdom. We know of only two youth organizations in Wales, the Boy Scouts and the Boys' Brigade. As far as we know, Welsh Scouting was essentially the same as English Scouting. We know of no significant difference. We assume a badge identified Welsh Cubs and Scouts. We wonder if English boys in Wales also wore that badge. Perhaps it was seen as a unit identifier. We wonder how language is handled in Welsh Scouting. We suspect that this has changed substantially since Scouting was first established. We know nothing about the Boys' Brigade in Wales. Hopefully a Welsh reader will be able to provide us more information.
We have very limited information about Yugoslavia. There were a range of nationalist organizations, but this is very complicated because many were ethically based and not national organizations. We have some information about the Boy Scouts. Scouting was founded in Serbia during 1911. We have less information about Croatia, Bosnia and other areas of what came to be Yugoslavia in 1919. Scouting existed in Yugoslavia during the inter-War era, but ethnic tensions presumably affected the Scouting movement. After the German World War II invasion, Yugoslavia was partinioned between Germzany, Italy, and their Balkan partners. Croatia became a NAZI ally. Presumably they had some form of NAZI youth group. Ther may have been other Fascist groups formed in the other areas occupied Yugoslavia. The Hitler Youth was established in the area of Sklovenia annexed to the Reich. Scouting was banned and with a raging insurgency it would have been dangerous for boys to wear any kind of Scout unifiorm. After the War, Tito and his Communists established a Communist dictatrorship with the Young Pioneers as the only permissible uniformed youth group. Yugoslavis in the 1990s split apart in a series of vicious wars. We are unsure about the youth groups active in each of the countries whichg emdrged from Yugoslavia. Presumably Scouting is the principal one.
We can usually figure out the country involved in youth group photographs even if there is no indication on the photograph. Ethnicity, clothing, buildings, vehicles, and other background feartures can help provide clues as to the country. The youth group involved is more complicated, but the country is easier to work out. We have acquired a few photographs that we are not sure about. We will post them here and hope that readers may be able to identify them.
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